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Rubber toughening of phenolic resin by using nitrile rubber and amino silane

Çağatay, Onur
The aim of this study was to investigate rubber toughening of resol type phenol-formaldehyde resin. For this purpose, phenolic resin was first modified by only acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, and then by using nitrile rubber together with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Test specimens were prepared by mixing and casting of liquid phenolic resin in three groups. In the first one, neat phenolic resin specimens were produced. In the second group, phenolic resin was modified with 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 wt.% nitrile rubber, while in the last group modification was carried out by using 0.5 wt.% nitrile rubber together with 1, 2, and 4wt.% amino silane (with respect to nitrile rubber). All specimens were heat cured in the oven. In order to observe behaviors of the specimens, Three-Point Bending, Charpy Impact, Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness, and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis tests were conducted according to the related ISO standards for all specimens groups. Scanning Electron Microscopy was also used for the fractographic analysis of some samples. It can be concluded that, although there were problems in mixing and casting of liquid resol type phenolic resin, its toughness could be improved by using nitrile rubber and amino silane. Modification by using nitrile rubber and amino silane together was much more effective than by using only nitrile rubber. In this synergistic case for instance, Charpy impact strength and fracture toughness values of the neat phenolic specimens were increased 63% and 50%, respectively. SEM studies indicated that the main rubber toughening mechanism was shear yielding observed as deformation lines especially initiated at the domains of nitrile rubber and amino silane.