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Antibiotic resistant staphylococcus aureus infection studies in hospitals

Alalem, Annour Mohammad
Clinical S. aureus strains were gathered from four hospitals, two in Turkey (Hacettepe hospital 200 strains and Ankara Hospital 106 strains) and the other two from Libya (Aljalla Hospital 88 strains and Jamahyria Hospital 62 strains). The clinical specimens were collected form different sources including blood, urine, wound, pus, burn, sputum, semen, catheter and aspiration. Patients were aged between 0 to 84 years and from both sexes. Resistance to Methicillin was determined by measuring the Oxacillin MIC; this was done by using the oxacillin E-test, with resistance defined as an MIC of >2 g ml. In this study all isolates displayed an Oxacillin MIC of ≥256g/ml. The MRSA strains were (56%) in Turkish hospitals, and (59%) in Libyan hospitals. The percentage of the VRSA and VISA in Libyan hospitals was (7%) and (26%) respectively, although the percentage of VRSA in Turkish hospitals was only 2% and there were no intermediately susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VISA). Besides the MRSA isolates, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus showing Methicillin resistance was collected from clinical isolates in thirteen patients in Turkish hospitals. In both countries, the majority MRSA isolates were multiresistant to more than five classes of antibiotics including; Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Tetracycline, Erythromycin and Ciprofloxacin. Most of the MRSA isolates were from blood (68%), wounds (57%) and pus (50%).The results of genetic investigations indicated that the mecA gene was present in the majority of isolates in both countries; the community acquired MRSA type (ccr-BIV) was present in three samples out of thirty in Turkish hospitals and in one case out of twenty in Libyan hospitals; There was no case out of fifty specimens that carry the hospitals acquired MRSA type (ccr-BI, II, III) in both countries. Besides the Methicillin resistance gene, the incidence of Tetracycline resistance gene was quite high (tetM and tetK 50%) in Turkish hospitals isolates, and the prevalence of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin gene was high (PVL 70%) in Libyan hospitals specimens.