Use of borates as an activating agent for drilling mud bentonites

Toka, Bülent
In drilling technologies, Na-bentonite-water mixtures are used as drilling mud. As the reserves of sodium-bentonite decline, calcium or low-quality bentonites are activated with inorganic salts and/or treated with different types of polymers as an alternative to Na-bentonite. The quality of such bentonites, commonly referred to as extended bentonite may deteriorate under severe drilling conditions, such as; bacterial activity, high temperature etc. It was considered that borates could prevent the deterioration of extended bentonites due to their well known bactericide properties. This study involves the use of Na-Borate as an activating agent for bentonites in place of the commonly used Na-carbonate. The effects of Na-borate on the rheological and filtrate behaviours of two different bentonites, namely, Edirne Bentonite (E-Ben) and Çankırı Bentonite (C-Ben) were investigated. The results were evaluated based on API standards and in comparison to those of Na-carbonate activated bentonites. It was found that Na-borate could be used as a bentonite activator, although somewhat higher dosages (3,78% Na2O equivalent for E-Ben and 0,76% Na2O equivalent for C-Ben) than Na-carbonate (2,90% Na2O equivalent for E-Ben and 0,58% Na2O equivalent for C-Ben) are necessary to obtain the same rheological properties. In terms of aging, it was determined that aging had no adverse effect on v the rheological and filtrate properties of bentonite treated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyanionic cellulose (PAC), but rheological properties of bentonites treated with xanthan gum were found to deteriorate upon aging. The presence of Na-borate in the mud appears to alleviate this adverse effect.


Investigation of bit hydraulics for gasified drilling fluids
Doğan, Hüseyin Ali; Özbayoğlu, Mehmet Evren; Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering (2004)
Accurate determination of the pressure losses at the bit is very important for drilling practices in petroleum industry. In the literature, there are several studies on determination of the pressure losses. Major focus is concentrated on single phase drilling fluids, which is far from accurate estimation of pressure losses for multiphase fluids, i.e., fluids including a liquid and a gas phase, at the bit. Some of these models are valid for multiphase fluids, however, they are either valid for very high gas ...
Synthesis, characterization and investigation of thermoluinescence properties of strontium pyrophosphate doped with metals
İlkay, Levent Sait; Özbayoğlu, Gülhan; Department of Mining Engineering (2009)
Strontium pyrophosphate is a promising phosphate that is used widely in the industry as a result of its luminescent, fluorescent, dielectric, semi-conductor, catalyst, magnetic and ion exchange properties. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) is one of such areas. Recent researches in METU on thermoluminescence property of strontium pyrophosphate showed that strontium pyrophosphate could give enough intensity for radiation dosimetry when doped with oxides of some rare-earth elements. In this study strontium py...
Rate of penetration estimation model for directional and horizontal wells
Ettehadi Osgouei, Reza; Özbayoğlu, Mehmet Evren; Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering (2007)
Directional and horizontal drilling operations are increasingly conducted in all over the world, especially parallel to the growth of the technological developments in the industry. Common application fields for directional and horizontal drilling are in offshore and onshore when there is no way of drilling vertical wells. During directional and horizontal well drilling, many additional challenges occur when compared with vertical well drilling, such as limited weight on bit, harder hole cleaning, trajector...
Using foam in horizontal well drilling: A cuttings transport modeling approach
Ozbayoglu, ME; Miska, SZ; Reed, T; Takach, N (Elsevier BV, 2005-04-30)
Foam is a frequently used compressible fluid in drilling applications. Cuttings transport with foam has been a focus of interest for years. Few studies have been conducted on vertical well configuration and successfully applied. However, less is known about the performance of foam in highly inclined and horizontal wells. In this study, a layered model is developed for describing cuttings transport in horizontal wells. Due to the presence of a cuttings bed, generalized rheological model parameters for foam a...
Use of boron compounds as synergistic flame retardant in low density polyethylene – ethylene vinyl acetate blends and nanocomposites
İbibikcan, Esin; Kaynak, Cevdet; Department of Polymer Science and Technology (2013)
It is known that for the production of halogen-free cable insulation materials based on polyethylene, very high amounts of traditional metal hydroxide flame retardants such as 65 wt% aluminum hydroxide (ATH) is required to fulfill international directives. Thus, flammability studies investigating synergistic compounds and contribution of nanomaterials have been crucial. Therefore, the first purpose of this thesis was to reveal possible synergism of three boron compounds zinc borate (ZB), boron oxide (BO) an...
Citation Formats
B. Toka, “Use of borates as an activating agent for drilling mud bentonites,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2008.