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Reynolds-averaged navier-stokes computations of jet flows emanating from turbofan exhausts

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2008
Kaya, Serpil
This thesis presents the results of steady, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations for jet flow emanating from a generic turbofan engine exhaust. All computations were performed with commercial solver FLUENT v6.2.16. Different turbulence models were evaluated. In addition to turbulence modeling issues, a parametric study was considered. Different modeling approaches for turbulent jet flows were explained in brief, with specific attention given to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method used for the calculations. First, a 2D ejector problem was solved to find out the most appropriate turbulence model and solver settings for the jet flow problem under consideration. Results of one equation Spalart-Allmaras, two-equation standart k-ε, realizable k-ε, k-ω and SST k-ω turbulence models were compared with the experimental data provided and also with the results of Yoder [21]. The results of SST k-ω and Spalart-Allmaras turbulence models show the best agreement with the experimental data. Discrepancy with the experimental data was observed at the initial growth region of the jet, but further downstream calculated results were closer to the measurements. Comparing the flow fields for these different turbulence models, it is seen that close to the onset of mixing section, turbulence dissipation was high for models other than SST k-ω and Spalart-Allmaras turbulence models. Higher levels of turbulent kinetic energy were present in the SST k-ω and Spalart-Allmaras turbulence models which yield better results compared to other turbulence models. The results of 2D ejector problem showed that turbulence model plays an important role to define the real physics of the problem. In the second study, analyses for a generic, subsonic, axisymmetric turbofan engine exhaust were performed. A grid sensitivity study with three different grid levels was done to determine grid dimensions of which solution does not change for the parametric study. Another turbulence model sensitivity study was performed for turbofan engine exhaust analysis to have a better understanding. In order to evaluate the results of different turbulence models, both turbulent and mean flow variables were compared. Even though turbulence models produced much different results for turbulent quantities, their effects on the mean flow field were not that much significant. For the parametric study, SST k-ω turbulence model was used. It is seen that boundary layer thickness effect becomes important in the jet flow close to the lips of the nozzles. At far downstream regions, it does not affect the flow field. For different turbulent intensities, no significant change occurred in both mean and turbulent flow fields.