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Depositional stacking patterns and cycles of Garzan Formation in the Garzan-Germik oil field: an approach to cycle to log correlation

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2008
Yıldızel, Zeynep Elif Gaziulusoy
The Garzan Formation is a deepening upward marine carbonate including successions ranging from subtidal to open marine facies deposited in the Maastrichtian. The Garzan Formation is composed of five microfacies types; Miliolid Wackestone (subtidal), Orbitoid Miliolid Wackestone, Rudist Wackestone (backshoal to shoal), Rotalid Miliolid Wackestone (shoal to foreshoal) and Pelagic Foraminiferal Mudstone (foreshoal to open marine). These five microfacies are stacked in different combinations consisting of five types of depositional cycles. The type A and D cycles the building blocks of transgressive systems tract (retrogradational), whereas type B and C cycles are deposited during highstand systems tract (aggradational). The type E cycle is progradational and also corresponds to the highstand systems tract deposits. The maximum flooding surface is usually located within the type D cycle towards the top of the formation. vi Generally, the base of the Garzan Formation deposition starts with highstand systems tract deposits (type E and C cycles) and overlain by transgressive systems tract deposits (type A cycle) in between there is a type 2 sequence boundary. Then deposition continues with highstand systems tract deposits (alternation of type B and C cycles) which are aggradational in character. The top of the Formation is characterized by transgressive systems tract deposits (type D cycle) which usually includes the maximum flooding surface. The second type 2 sequence boundary is located below the type D cycle. There are four of the stacking patterns observed in the Garzan Formation. The GR values change from relatively high to low API in type D and A cycles, whereas a relative shift from low to high API is observed in type E cycle. The GR in the type B and C cycles does not display any relative change. There is no net movement in the SONIC readings in type A, B, C and E cycles; however there is a relative shifting from low velocity to high velocity in type D cycle. In Garzan deposition opposing the general patterns, a decrease in GR readings indicates a decrease in energy and relatively deepening. In carbonate depositional systems predicting the depositional environment from the logs should only be accomplished with microfacies control, otherwise the interpretation will be erroneous.