Production and characterization of boron-based additives and the effect of flame retardant additives on pet-based composites

Kılınç, Mert
For the aim of production of poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET based flame retardant composites; boron based flame retardant additives, 3.5 mole hydrated zinc borate and boron phosphate were synthesized. Zinc borate was synthesized with the reaction of boric acid and zinc oxide in both laboratory and pilot scale reactors. Effects of reaction parameters on kinetics of reaction and final product particle size were evaluated. Boron phosphate was synthesized via dry, wet and microwave methods. In addition to the synthesized flame retardant additives, several non-halogenated flame retardant additives, which were commercially available, were also used. Composites were prepared using twin screw extruder and molded by injection molding, followed by characterization in terms of flame retardancy behavior, mechanical and thermal properties, and morphologies. Based on the results of first stage experiments, aiming to determine effective additives, different amounts and combinations of triphenyl phosphate, triphenyl phosphine oxide, zinc borate and microwave produced boron phosphate were chosen and used in PET matrix. Flame retardancy of the composites were determined by conducting horizontal burning rate and limiting oxygen index (LOI) tests. Smoke emissions during fire were also measured. According to the LOI test results, LOI of neat PET was determined as 21%, and with the addition of 5% boron phosphate and 5% triphenyl phosphate together, LOI was increased up to 36%. The smoke density analysis results implied that, boron phosphate was a successful smoke suppressant for PET matrix. In addition to flammability properties, tensile and impact properties of the composites were also improved with flame retardant additives and expecially with the addition of triphenyl phosphate.


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The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical properties of a recycled grade polypropylene. Polymer blends and nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding method in a twin screw extruder. Cloisite® 15A, Cloisite® 25A and Cloisite® 30B were used as organoclays, and ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate (E-MA-GMA) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-MAH) were used as compatibilizers. The effects of additive concentrations, types of organoclays and compatibilizers, processing con...
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The objectives of this study are to synthesize sub-micron sized zinc borate and to use them with other flame retardant additives in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) based composites. The study can be divided into two parts. In the first part, it was aimed to synthesize sub-micron sized zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O) with the reaction of zinc oxide and boric acid. For this purpose, low molecular weight additives or surfactants were used in the syntheses to prevent the agglomeration and to decrease particl...
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In this study, the flame retardancy contribution of zinc borate when used together with a traditional flame retardant (aluminum diethylphosphinate compound) was investigated for neat polyamide-6 and for 15 wt% short glass fiber reinforced composite. Melt mixing with twin-screw extrusion was the compounding method while injection and compression molding were the shaping methods of specimens. Three different flammability tests (limiting oxygen index, UL-94 vertical burning, mass loss calorimetry) indicated th...
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Citation Formats
M. Kılınç, “Production and characterization of boron-based additives and the effect of flame retardant additives on pet-based composites,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2009.