Application, comparison, and improvement of known received signal strength indication (RSSI) based indoor localization and tracking methods using active RFID devices

Özkaya, Bora
Localization and tracking objects or people in real time in indoor environments have gained great importance. In the literature and market, many different location estimation and tracking solutions using received signal strength indication (RSSI) are proposed. But there is a lack of information on the comparison of these techniques revealing their weak and strong behaviors over each other. There is a need for the answer to the question; “which localization/tracking method is more suitable to my system needs?”. So, one purpose of this thesis is to seek the answer to this question. Hence, we investigated the behaviors of commonly proposed localization methods, mainly nearest neighbors based methods, grid based Bayesian filtering and particle filtering methods by both simulation and experimental work on the same test bed. The other purpose of this thesis is to propose an improved method that is simple to install, cost effective and moderately accurate to use for real life applications. Our proposed method uses an improved type of sampling importance resampling (SIR) filter incorporating automatic calibration of propagation model parameters of logv distance path loss model and RSSI measurement noise by using reference tags. The proposed method also uses an RSSI smoothing algorithm exploiting the RSSI readings from the reference tags. We used an active RFID system composed of 3 readers, 1 target tag and 4 reference tags in a home environment of two rooms with a total area of 36 m². The proposed method yielded 1.25 m estimation RMS error for tracking a mobile target.