PM10 and PM2.5 composition over the Central Black Sea: origin and seasonal variability

Koçak, Mustafa
Tutsak, E.
Theodosi, C.
Zarmpas, P.
Kalegeri, P.
Daily PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected between April 2009 and July 2010 at a rural site (Sinop) situated on the coast of the Central Black Sea. The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 23.2 +/- 16.7 and 9.8 +/- 6.9 mu g m(-3), respectively. Coarse and fine filters were analyzed for Cl-, NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), C2O4 (2-), PO4 (3-), Na+, NH4 (+), K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ by using ion chromatography. Elemental and organic carbon content in bulk quartz filters were also analyzed. The highest PM2.5 contribution to PM10 was found in summer with a value of 0.54 due to enhanced secondary aerosols in relation to photochemistry. Cl-, Na+, and Mg2+ illustrated their higher concentrations and variability during winter. Chlorine depletion was chiefly attributed to nitrate. Higher nssCa(2+) concentrations were ascribed to episodic mineral dust intrusions from North Africa into the region. Crustal material (31 %) and sea salt (13 %) were found to be accounted for the majority of the PM10. The ionic mass (IM), particulate organic matter (POM), and elemental carbon (EC) explained 13, 20, and 3 % of the PM10 mass, correspondingly. The IM, POM, and EC dominated the PM2.5 (similar to 74 %) mass. Regarding EU legislation, the exceeded PM2.5 values were found to be associated with secondary aerosols, with a particular dominance of POM. For the exceeded PM10 values, six of the events were dominated by dust while two and four of these exceedances were caused by sea salt and mix events, respectively.


Concentration and chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 in the Northeastern Mediterranean
Kubilay, Nilguen; Koçak, Mustafa; Mihalopoulos, Nikos (2006-09-01)
Two stage aerosol samples (PM10-2.5 and PM2.5) were collected at a rural site (Erdemli) located on the coast of the Northeastern Mediterranean, between April 2001 and April 2002. A total of 581 aerosol samples were analysed for trace elements (Fe, Ti, Mn, Ca, V, Ni, Zn, Cr) and water soluble ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42- and MS-). The annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 levels were 36.4 +/- 27.8 mu g m(-3) and 9.7 +/- 5.9, respectively. The highest levels of PM10 were observed during...
Contributions of natural sources to high PM10 and PM2.5 events in the eastern Mediterranean
Koçak, Mustafa; Kubilay, Nilgun (2007-06-01)
In total 562 daily PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected from April 2001 to April 2002 at a rural site (Erdemli) located on the coast of the Eastern Mediterranean. The annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 levels were 36.4 +/- 27.8 and 9.7 +/- 5.9 mu g m(-3), respectively. PM10 and PW2.5 concentrations indicated orders of magnitude change from day to day (PM10 = 2-326 mu g m(-3); PM2.5 = 0.5-28 mu g m(-3)). The highest levels of PM10 were observed during the transition period (March, April and May) due to mineral dust...
Chemical composition of Eastern Mediterranean aerosol and precipitation: Indications of long-range transport
Almomani, Idrees; GÜLLÜ, GÜLEN; Ölmez, İlhan; ELER, ÜNAL; Ortel, E; Şirin, Gürol; Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal (1997-01-01)
Daily aerosol and wet-only precipitation samples were collected, between January 1992 and January 1994 at a permanent station established on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Collected aerosol and rain samples were analyzed for major ions and a host of trace elements using a combination of analytical techniques, including ion chromatography, atomic absorbtion spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results have demonstrated;hat concentrations of parameters studied are higher than cor...
Atmospheric nutrient inputs to the northern levantine basin from a long-term observation: sources and comparison with riverine inputs
Koçak, Mustafa; TUĞRUL, SÜLEYMAN; Mihalopoulos, N (2010-01-01)
Aerosol and rainwater samples have been collected at a rural site located on the coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean, Erdemli, Turkey between January 1999 and December 2007. Riverine sampling was carried out at five Rivers (Ceyhan, Seyhan, Goksu, Berdan and Lamas) draining into the Northeastern Levantine Basin (NLB) between March 2002 and July 2007. Samples have been analyzed for macronutrients of phosphate, silicate, nitrate and ammonium (PO43-, Sidiss, NO3- and NH4+). Phosphate and silicate in aerosol ...
Nehir, Münevver; Koçak , Mustafa; Department of Oceanography (2016-10-10)
Two stage aerosol (coarse: PM10-2.5 and fine: PM2.5) and rainwater samples were collected at a rural site (Erdemli) located on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean, between January 2014 and April 2015. Concentrations of the water-soluble nitrogen species (organic nitrogen (WSON), nitrate, ammonium, total nitrogen (WSTN) and urea) were measured in a total of 740 aerosol and 23 rainwater samples. Among the nitrogen species, WSON (24.6 ± 16.3 nmol N m-3) denoted the highest arithmetic mean and followed by am...
Citation Formats
M. Koçak, E. Tutsak, C. Theodosi, P. Zarmpas, and P. Kalegeri, “PM10 and PM2.5 composition over the Central Black Sea: origin and seasonal variability,” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, pp. 18076–18092, 2015, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: