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Branch-line couplers using unequal line lengths

Toker, Canan
Saglam, M
Ozme, M
Gunalp, N
General solutions for branch-line couplers using different Line lengths are provided in this paper. Explicit expressions are derived with which a hybrid with any given power division ratio can be designed. In the design, one of the characteristic impedances or lengths of the branches can be chosen arbitrarily to suit a given design specification, This approach brings flexibility in choosing the characteristic impedances or the lengths of the branches, and is helpful especially in monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit applications where restrictions imposed on microstrip transmission lines do not allow the use of conventional branch-line couplers employing quarter-wave-long lines, However, the resultant bandwidth is narrower compared to that of the conventional coupler.