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Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes Reveal the Absence of Maternal Kinship in the Burials of catalhoyuk People and Their Genetic Affinities

2019-03-11
Chylenski, Maciej
Ehler, Edvard
Somel, Mehmet
Yaka, Reyhan
Krzewinska, Maja
Dabert, Miroslawa
Juras, Anna
Marciniak, Arkadiusz
catalhoyuk is one of the most widely recognized and extensively researched Neolithic settlements. The site has been used to discuss a wide range of aspects associated with the spread of the Neolithic lifestyle and the social organization of Neolithic societies. Here, we address both topics using newly generated mitochondrial genomes, obtained by direct sequencing and capture-based enrichment of genomic libraries, for a group of individuals buried under a cluster of neighboring houses from the classical layer of the site's occupation. Our data suggests a lack of maternal kinship between individuals interred under the floors of catalhoyuk buildings. The findings could potentially be explained either by a high variability of maternal lineages within a larger kin group, or alternatively, an intentional selection of individuals for burial based on factors other than biological kinship. Our population analyses shows that Neolithic Central Anatolian groups, including catalhoyuk, share the closest affinity with the population from the Marmara Region and are, in contrast, set further apart from the Levantine populations. Our findings support the hypothesis about the emergence and the direction of spread of the Neolithic within Anatolian Peninsula and beyond, emphasizing a significant role of Central Anatolia in this process.