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Earthquake-induced liquefaction around marine structures

Sumer, B. Mutlu
Ansal, Atilla
Çetin, Kemal Önder
Damgaard, Jesper
Gunbak, A. Riza
Hansen, Niels-Erik Ottesen
Sawicki, Andrzej
Synolakis, Costas E.
Yalçıner, Ahmet Cevdet
Yuksel, Yalcin
Zen, Kouki
This paper gives a state-of-the-art review of seismic-induced liquefaction with special reference to marine structures. The paper is organized in seven sections: (1) introduction; (2) seismic-induced liquefaction in which a general account of soil liquefaction is presented; (3) existing codes/guidelines regarding seismic-induced liquefaction and its implications for marine structures; (4) review of the Japanese experience, giving a brief history of earthquakes and design codes, describing the current design code/standard for port and harbor facilities including counter measures and remediation; (5) review of the liquefaction damage inflicted on marine structures in the 1999 Turkey Kocaeli Earthquake, including recommendations which draw on the lessons learned; (6) assessment of postliquefaction ground deformation (more specifically of lateral ground spreading); and (7) tsunamis and their impact. The present paper and the existing guidelines (CEN, ASCE, and PIANC) form a complementary source of information on earthquake-induced liquefaction with special reference to its impact on marine structures.