Predictive modeling for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation by some application conditions of high hydrostatic pressure, namely glucose concentration and application temperature, in high glucose containing model beverages

Altuner, Ergin Murat
Alpas, Hami
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a nonthermal food processing technology. Many studies have shown that HHP may be used as a process to increase the shelf life of beverages, which are inherently containing glucose or subsequently glucose added. Depending on food processing technologies and storage conditions 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) formation from glucose in foods occurs. There are some limitations about the amount of the 5-HMF present in foods based on World Health Organization and various International Standards, such as European Commission Directive 2007/196/EC. The aim of this study is to present the effect of glucose concentration and HHP in 5-HMF formation in model beverages with different glucose concentrations (10, 40, and 70 g/200 mL). A strong positive correlation was observed between 5-HMF formation and glucose concentration (R = 0.6055) and application temperature (R = 0.6774). Also a predictive analysis model was fitted to the 5-HMF formation response by response surface model (RSM). Practical applications The equation obtained as a model in this study can be used to calculate the formation of 5-HMF for a glucose containing beverages processed by HHP as a response of glucose concentration and application temperature within the conditions of the study. The model was calibrated and validated on glucose containing model beverages, which are representatives of some high glucose containing beverages. HMF content is an important parameter and should be included as one of the quality parameters for commercial beverages. Because of that, this equation has an importance especially for the beverage producers, who process their product by HHP, to predict 5-HMF formation by controlling glucose concentration and HHP treatment conditions. Moreover, developed model can easily be adapted to the standard procedures of academic and industrial applications.