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Discussion of "High-modulus columns for liquefaction mitigation" by James R. Martin II, C. Guney Olgun, James K. Mitchell, and H. Turan Durgunoglu

This paper presents the performance of a shopping complex in Turkey where the soils were improved with jet-grout columns and preload fills and subjected to the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake (M=7.4). Under construction at the time of the earthquake, the Carrefour Shopping Center covers an area of 55,000m2 and is founded on shallow footings, mats, and slabs-on-grade that rest on soft, saturated alluvial sediments consisting of clays, silts, and sands. High-modulus columns constructed by jet grouting were installed at close-to-moderate spacings to reduce anticipated static settlements in the clays and mitigate liquefaction in the sands. The site was subjected to a peak acceleration of approximately 0.2g during the earthquake. Grouting had been completed for about two-thirds of the site when the earthquake struck. Following the event, a field reconnaissance found stark contrast between the performance of the improved and unimproved sections. The jet-grout-treated areas suffered no apparent damage, whereas the unimproved sections of the complex, along with nearby untreated building sites, commonly suffered liquefaction-related settlements of up to 10 cm. This is the only case history known to the authors that documents the field performance of high-modulus columns used in this manner for liquefaction mitigation and direct instrumented measurement of liquefaction-induced settlements.