High-Modulus Columns for Liquefaction Mitigation

This paper presents the performance of a shopping complex in Turkey where the soils were improved with jet-grout columns and preload fills and subjected to the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake (M=7.4). Under construction at the time of the earthquake, the Carrefour Shopping Center covers an area of 55,000m2 and is founded on shallow footings, mats, and slabs-on-grade that rest on soft, saturated alluvial sediments consisting of clays, silts, and sands. High-modulus columns constructed by jet grouting were installed at close-to-moderate spacings to reduce anticipated static settlements in the clays and mitigate liquefaction in the sands. The site was subjected to a peak acceleration of approximately 0.2g during the earthquake. Grouting had been completed for about two-thirds of the site when the earthquake struck. Following the event, a field reconnaissance found stark contrast between the performance of the improved and unimproved sections. The jet-grout-treated areas suffered no apparent damage, whereas the unimproved sections of the complex, along with nearby untreated building sites, commonly suffered liquefaction-related settlements of up to 10 cm. This is the only case history known to the authors that documents the field performance of high-modulus columns used in this manner for liquefaction mitigation and direct instrumented measurement of liquefaction-induced settlements.


Zero-Displacement Lateral Spreads, 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey, Earthquake
Youd, T. Leslie; Deden, Daniel W.; Bray, Jonathan D.; Sancio, Rodolfo; Çetin, Kemal Önder; Gerber, Travis M. (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2009-01-01)
Three potential lateral spreads exhibited negligible displacements during the 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey Earthquake (M(w)=7.5) even though they were located within 7 km of the fault rupture. These spreads are analyzed to verify and augment current procedures for predicting liquefaction resistance and lateral spread displacement. The sites include Cark Canal and Cumhuriyet Avenue in Adapazari, underlain by fine-grained sediment, and Degirmendere Nose adjacent to Izmit Bay, a steeply sloping area underlain by moder...
Strength of various sands in triaxial and cyclic direct shear tests
ÇABALAR, ALİ FIRAT; Dulundu, Kemal; Tuncay, Kağan (Elsevier BV, 2013-04-01)
This paper presents the result of an extensive series of experimental investigation carried out in triaxial and cyclic direct shear tests on sands having various properties, which were obtained from different locations in Turkey and in Northern Cyprus. In order to investigate the link between strength and physical properties (i.e., shape) of the sand particles, three series of triaxial tests (Consolidated-Drained, CD; Consolidated-Undrained, CU; and Unconsolidated-Undrained, UU) for each were performed unde...
Discussion of "Subsurface characterization at ground failure sites in Adapazari, Turkey" by Jonathan D. Bray, Rodolfo B. Sancio, Turan Durgunoglu, Akin Onalp, T. Leslie Youd, Jonathan P. Stewart, Raymond B. Seed, Onder K. Cetin, Ertan Bol, M. B. Baturay, C. Christensen, and T Karadayilar - July 2004, vol. 130, no. 7, pp. 673-685.
Bakır, Bahadır Sadık (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2006-04-01)
Ground failure in Adapazari, Turkey during the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake was severe. Hundreds of structures settled, slid, tilted, and collapsed due in part to liquefaction and ground softening. Ground failure was more severe adjacent to and under buildings. The soils that led to severe building damage were generally low plasticity silts. In this paper, the results of a comprehensive investigation of the soils of Adapazari, which included cone penetration test ~CPT! profiles followed by borings with standard ...
Discussion of "Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading at Izmit Bay during the Kocaeli (Izmit)-Turkey earthquake" by K. Onder Cetin, T. Leslie Youd, Raymond B. Seed, Jonathan D. Bray, Jonathan P. Stewart, H. Turan Durgunoglu, W. Lettis, and M. Tolga Yilmaz
Bakır, Bahadır Sadık (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2006-07-01)
This paper presents a study of liquefaction-induced lateral ground displacements along the coast of Izmit Bay during the 1999 Kocaeli (Izmit)-Turkey earthquake. The paper discusses: (1) observed ground displacements after the earthquake, (2) the results of field investigations by means of borings and in situ index tests, including standard penetration tests, static cone penetration tests, and piezocone tests, (3) analyses of expected lateral displacements using two empirical models and one semiempirical mod...
Displacement-based fragility functions for low- and mid-rise ordinary concrete buildings
Akkar, S; Sucuoğlu, Haluk; Yakut, Ahmet (SAGE Publications, 2005-11-01)
Fragility functions are determined for low- and mid-rise ordinary concrete buildings, which constitute the most vulnerable construction type in Turkey as well as several other countries prone to earthquakes. A hybrid approach is employed where building capacities are obtained from field data and their dynamic responses are calculated by response history analyses. Field data consists of 32 sample buildings representing the general characteristics of two-to five-story substandard reinforced concrete buildings...
Citation Formats
M. Yilmaz and B. S. Bakır, “High-Modulus Columns for Liquefaction Mitigation,” JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, pp. 946–947, 2006, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/47468.