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Detecting critical choke points for achieving Good Environmental Status in European seas

Potts, Tavis
O'Higgins, Tim
Brennan, Ruth
Cinnirella, Sergio
Brandt, Urs Steiner
Suarez de Vivero, Juan Luis
van Beusekom, Justus
Troost, Tineke A.
Paltriguera, Lucille
Hoşgör, Hatice Ayşe
Choke points are social, cultural, political, institutional, or psychological obstructions of social-ecological systems that constrain progress toward an environmental objective. Using a soft systems methodology, different types of chokes points were identified in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, the Baltic, and the North and Mediterranean seas. The choke points were of differing types: cultural and political choke points were identified in Barra and the Mediterranean, respectively, whereas the choke points in the North Sea and Baltic Sea were dependent on differing values toward the mitigation of eutrophication. We conclude with suggestions to identify and address choke points.