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B-spline modeling of VTEC over Turkey using GPS observations

Nohutcu, M.
Karslıoğlu, Mahmut Onur
Schmidt, M.
In this study we propose two approaches to model the Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) of the ionosphere with quadratic B-spline functions. For the 2-D case, VTEC is modeled in a Sun-fixed reference frame. In the 3-D approach, the 2-D model is extended to represent the temporal variations in an Earth-fixed reference frame. The localizing features of B-splines allow resolving finer structures for the regions with a sufficient number of observations by increasing the level of functions. To reduce the effects of outliers, Iteratively Re-weighted Least Squares (IRIS) with a bi-square weighting function as a robust regression algorithm is applied for parameter estimation. Another iterative method LSQR is performed for the solution of the linear systems providing a regularization effect for ill-conditioned problems. B-spline approaches are applied to real data obtained from the ground-based GPS observations over Turkey. Results are compared with the solutions of the Bernese GPS Software.