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Cellulose/chitosan pH-responsive indicator incorporated with carrot anthocyanins for intelligent food packaging

Tirtashi, Fahimeh Ebrahimi
Moradi, Mehran
Tajik, Hossein
Forough, Mehrdad
Ezati, Parya
Kuswandi, Bambang
In this study, the possible use of anthocyanins of black carrot (ABC) as a chemo-responsive dye to fabricate a colorimetric pH indicator in a cellulose-chitosan matrix was investigated in order to the monitoring of spoilage in pasteurized milk. Cellulose paper was impregnated with a chitosan solution prepared by a sol-gel method containing ABC (total anthocyanins content of 10 mg/100 mL) and characterized. The swelling and water solubility increased by incorporation of ABC into the chitosan-cellulose film. The colorimetric pH indicator showed an obvious color variation from pink to khaki at different pH values (pH 2-11). Stability tests revealed that the indicator had acceptable color stability during one-month storage at 20 degrees C. The results also confirmed the immobilization of ABC into the matrix of the polymeric indicator with no significant effect on the chemical and super-molecular structure of the samples. In food trial, fresh pasteurized milk was entirely discerned through a perceptible color change from blue to violet rose color after 48 h storage at 20 degrees C, which was comfortably observable by the naked eye. The results proved that the fabricated indicator could be used as food grade biomaterials to monitor freshness/spoilage of milk.