Black Sea sapropels: relationship to kerogens and fossil fuel precursors

Brown, SD
Chiavari, G
Ediger, V
Fabbri, D
Gaines, AF
Galletti, C
Karayigit, AI
Love, GD
Snape, CE
Sirkecioglu, O
Toprak, S
The organic structures in sapropels sampled from two cores obtained at known locations beneath the southern Black Sea have been characterised. Fluorescence petrography shows the sapropels to occur as layers of impure alginite, similar to 50 mu m thick, within Unit 2 of the sediments. Solid state C-13 NMR indicates the bulk chemical structures to be very similar to those in an immature Type 1 kerogen (lamosite) oil shale with an aromaticity of similar to 0.2. Consistent with the immaturity of the sapropels, which are between 3000 and 7000 years old, temperature programmed reduction showed aliphatic and aromatic sulphides to be the major organic sulphur forms. Alkanes formed from phytoplankton lipids, alkyl benzenes, alkyl naphthalenes and some phenols dominated the mix of volatile compounds identified by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. About half of the sapropels remained as an involatile, tarry residue after pyrolysis. The structure of the sapropels is consistent with their formation resulting from marine phytoplankton with only small terrigeneous inputs. Future catagenesis may be expected to decarboxylate the lipids, increase the aromaticity and to dry and compress the muds to form a source rock.


Eastern Mediterranean sapropels: chemical structure, deposition and relation to oil-shales
Dick, C; Ediger, V; Fabbri, D; Gaines, AF; Love, GD; McGinn, A; McRae, C; Murray, IP; Nicol, BJ; Snape, CE (Elsevier BV, 2002-03-01)
Ten sapropels, deposited in three different basins of the eastern Mediterranean since the Miocene and selected from cores of the Deep Sea Drilling Programme have been characterised by elemental analysis; fluorescence, infra-red and NMR spectrometry, by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by catalytic hydrogenation at moderately high pressure. The sapropels are Types I-II kerogens, which have been oxidised, probably by a front experienced, since their deposition. Only one, from the Cretan basi...
Sulfur speciation in the upper Black Sea sediments
Yücel, Mustafa; Moore, Tommy S.; Janzen, Christopher P.; Luther, George W. (2010-01-30)
We report solid phase sulfur speciation of six cores from sediments underlying oxic, suboxic and anoxic-sulfidic waters of the Black Sea. Our dataset includes the five sulfur species [pyrite-sulfur, acid volatile sulfides (AVS), zerovalent sulfur (S(0)), organic polysulfides (RS(x)), humic sulfur] together with reactive iron and manganese, as quantified by dithionite extraction, and total organic carbon. Pyrite - sulfur was the major phase in all cores [200-400 mu mol (g dry wt)(-1)] except for the suboxic ...
Black Sea
Todorova, Nadezhda; Alyomov, Sergey; Chiotoroiu, Brindusa; Fach, Bettina; Osadchaya, Tatyana; Rangelov, Miroslav; Salihoğlu, Barış; Vasilev, Vasil (2019-01-01)
The Black Sea is a deep (approx. 2200 m), semienclosed European basin with 87% of the volume being anoxic, which leads to several consequences for its biodiversity. Challenges due to climate changes as well as high anthropogenic impacts have led to intense study of the Black Sea’s environmental future. Although its area is only approximately 410,000 km2, the Black Sea receives drainage from almost one-third of continental Europe, and so it has hydrological inputs and influences from a huge area. It borders ...
Relative involvement of mantle and crustal components in the Agacoren granitoid (central Anatolia, Turkey): Estimates from trace element and Sr-isotope data
Güleç, Nilgün Türkan (1998-02-01)
Trace element contents, together with Sr-isotope ratios on a limited number of samples, are reported for the central part of the Agacoren granitoid in central Anatolia (Turkey), Trace element contents are depicted in terms of Ocean Ridge Granitoid (ORG)-normalized elemental patterns. The patterns display similarities to Volcanic Arc Granitoids (VAG) and/or Collision Granitoids (COLG), and are characterized by enrichment in Large Ion Lithophile (LIL) elements relative to High Field Strength (HFS) elements, n...
Statistical Interpretation of the Relation Between ICP-OES/MS Geochemical and Mineralogical Data Obtained From Lake and Floodplain Sediments (Amuq Valley / SE Turkey)
Aykasım, Devin; Toksoy Köksal, Fatma; Avşar, Ulaş; Department of Geological Engineering (2022-2-3)
In the Amuq Valley region, mineralogical and elemental geochemical investigations were carried out along the undisturbed core samples that were taken from the Amuq Lake and from the vicinity of the mounds within this region. Mineralogical content of the sediments along these cores were examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope – Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry / Mass Spectrometry (ICP-OES/MS) analyses were ...
Citation Formats
S. Brown et al., “Black Sea sapropels: relationship to kerogens and fossil fuel precursors,” FUEL, pp. 1725–1742, 2000, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: