Environmentalism and Authoritarian Nationalism: A Reappraisal of the Turkish Modern State between 1930s-1940s

2017-04-29
This paper explores the connections between environmentalism and nationalism in the making of the Turkish modern state between 1930s and 1940s. Despite a vast body of literature on nationalism, scholars largely neglected its strong relations with environmentalism in this period. As such, the period marks the beginning of a certain environmental consciousness in Turkey. The borrowing of ideas from fascist Italy and Nazi Germany triggered the development of nationalism and authoritarianism via forestry and shaped the relationship between ideas of nature and nationalism. The nationalist arguments mainly revealed itself around the discussions of the “forest question” (orman davası) and the concept of the “green ideal” (yeşil ideal). For example, the common arguments on forests usually begin with classifying them as “national wealth”, and the wrongdoings against them as “national betrayal”. Under these conditions, the “love of forest” equalized with the “love of nation” and “love of country”. Therefore, this early environmentalism constituted an important part of the authoritarian nationalism of the 1930s and 1940s. This study examines the newspapers, journals, speeches of major political figures, booklets of forestry associations, and legislative records to construct a narrative of the relationship between environmental issues and nationalist ideologies in the early Republican period. I argue that the environmental issues used by a certain group of nationalist elites constituted and important part of the making of the Turkish authoritarian nationalist state. Moreover, the idea of nature that was related to nationalism and was rested on a fascist “green” ideology helps us to situate the early environmentalism in Turkey into a global context.

Suggestions

Urban streets and urban social sustainability: a case study on Bagdat street in Kadikoy, Istanbul
Lotfata, Aynaz; Ataöv Demirkan, Anlı (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-01)
This paper focuses on the social function of historical public space in Turkey that has been transformed with rise of modernism. Before that, it functioned as a suburban recreational area. The increasing demand for urban lands has been led to its transformation and its function as an urban component. The historical pattern of urban space can be conserved to protect and strengthen social interactions as the key issue of urban social sustainability. With a focus on the urban design through literature review, ...
Changing publicness of urban parks through time the case of Güvenpark, Ankara
Yılmaz, Aslıhan; Baş Bütüner, Funda; Sargın, Güven Arif; Department of City and Regional Planning (2015)
This thesis discusses the evolution of publicness expressed through different spatial planning approaches and interventions over the history of the Turkish Republic. Urban space is ideological and they are produced in accordance with an ideology. Throughout history, urban spaces undergo transformation and change in accordance with changing economic and socio-political dynamics. These dynamics not only transform urban space, but also affect the conception of publicness in society. In a sense, intervention in...
Miscarriages of Revisionist Analysis of the Cold War
Akdan, Tolgahan (2016-12-04)
This paper attempts to make an analysis of the Cold War revisionism through which it will make a critical appraisal of how revisionist historians interpret the Cold War struggle between the US and the Soviet Union. Though now established as a specific episode in history, the Cold War has always been a subject of intense debate among historians, political scientists as well as scholars of International Relations throughout the past half century, not only for its historical significance in shaping the fate of...
The reconstruction of Albanian politics and identity in the context of european integration
Nikolla, Dorina; Ertuğrul, Kürşad; Department of Political Science and Public Administration (2004)
This thesis analyses the change of the Albanian national identity and ideology during its contemporary history, beginning from the national awakening period up to post-communism. The break with the dictatorial Enver Hoxha regime marked the begining of a new era for the Albanian ideology and politics. To this regard, the political elite, played a prominent role in the process of transition and the opening of Albania to the world.The prospect for the EU membership became the major motivation of the Albanian p...
Cultural actors as agents of generating social co-presences within the place: Istanbul's contemporary art scene
KAHYA, GÜZİN YELİZ; Ataöv Demirkan, Anlı (Informa UK Limited, 2019-06-03)
This paper builds on the designation of cultural actors' actions as a decisive factor in the emergence of urban patterns of art-driven social co-presences in Istanbul. It contributes to the creative city debate from the perspective of community development by incorporating the contemporary arts into urban social space making efforts. Methodologically, the locations of art organizations in the contemporary arts scene of Istanbul are approached as an urban pattern of art driven social co-presences that result...
Citation Formats
S. Dursun, “Environmentalism and Authoritarian Nationalism: A Reappraisal of the Turkish Modern State between 1930s-1940s,” presented at the 2017 Annual Conference Understanding Turkey: Vision, Revision, and the Future, (28 - 29 Nisan 2017), Stanford, CA, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri, 2017, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/75530.