N-wave Maximum Runup with Fault Plane Parameters

It was common practice to represent tsunami initial wave form as solitary wave until Tadepalli and Synolakis (1996 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 445, 99-112). Once, Tadepalli and Synolakis (1996) have proposed N-wave as the appropriate model for initial tsunami waveform of an approaching tsunami, this resulted a paradigm change from solitary waves to N-waves, which had been earlier considered unstable. Yet, it took quite number of field observations to confirm N-wave hypothesis. For example, tens of eyewitnesses' description of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and mareogram records have confirmed that subduction zone earthquakes typically generate leading depression N-wave propagating towards the adjacent shoreline, while leading elevation N-wave propagate towards the open ocean. However, there is a claim that N-wave is not realistic for geophysical tsunamis (Madsen and Schäffer, 2010 J. Fluid Mech. 645, 27-57). Further, it is common practice to model tsunami initial waveform from Okada (1982 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. 75, 1135-1154)'s dislocation model, i.e. it is assumed that sea floor deformation resulted from an earthquake instantaneously translates to sea surface. Okada (1982)'s model provides sea bottom deformation using seismic parameters, i.e., seismic moment, fault length and width, focal depth, fault slip amount, dip angle, rake angle, and strike angle. Here, we systematically identify parameters in Tadepalli and Synolakis (1996)'s N-wave definition in terms of earthquake source parameters, fitting Okada's sea floor deformation to an N-wave. Hence, we are able to express N-wave in connection with earthquake source parameters. We test our results with a large set of parameters and observed very good fitting. Then, we present Tadepalli and Synolakis (1996)'s maximum runup formula with this parametric representation. Hence, simply, we present maximum runup in terms of earthquake fault plane parameters. We test our results against runup values presented in Okal and Synolakis (2004 Geophys. J. Int. 158, 899-912) and field observations, and obtain good agreement. Consequently, we confirm that N-wave is suitable representation of geophysically realistic tsunamis.


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Citation Formats
U. Kanoğlu, “N-wave Maximum Runup with Fault Plane Parameters,” American Gephysical Union, 9 - 13 Aralık 2019, 2019, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/78975.