Comparison of PCB winding topologies for axial-flux permanent magnet synchronous machines

Although axial-flux permanent magnet machines have high torque densities, challenges regarding mass production of stators make them a less appealing choice. Printed circuit board (PCB) axial-flux machine is a type of machine with a stator that is made of layers of PCB. Given the precise, fast, and cheap mass production capabilities of PCB manufacturers, PCB axial-flux machines stand as a viable alternative for conventional round-wire winding machines. In this study, five different winding topologies are compared. Their induced phase voltages and torque are calculated using the developed magnetic scalar potential method and finite element analysis (FEA). Proposed windings are tested on a 16-pole, 2000-RPM, double rotor-single stator axial-flux permanent magnet synchronous machine. Results showed that the parallel winding had the smallest resistance and loss. Moreover, radial and concentric winding had the highest induced voltage and torque while the radial winding had 20% less phase resistance than concentric. Also, the induced voltage of radial winding had the smallest total harmonic distortion in comparison with other winding types. A novel unequal width parallel winding is proposed and it is compared with parallel winding separately. It is found that by simply increasing the cross-section area of wave windings, it is possible to decrease copper loss by 17%.


Tokgöz, Furkan; Keysan, Ozan; Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (2022-5-27)
The axial-flux machines have been gaining popularity thanks to their higher torque density and short axial length compared to radial-flux machines. However, they are not easy to mass manufacture because of their thin form factor. Printed circuit board (PCB) technology offers a solution to the problem by utilizing the highly developed, precise, and consistent PCB manufacturing process. However, having a low copper fill factor and low inductance are the main disadvantages of the PCB motors. This thesis focuse...
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Citation Formats
F. Tokgöz, G. Çakal, and O. Keysan, “Comparison of PCB winding topologies for axial-flux permanent magnet synchronous machines,” IET ELECTRIC POWER APPLICATIONS, pp. 2577–2586, 2020, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: