Sizing hybrid renewable energy system with storage under net-metering considering grid energy balance

Rasool, Muhammad Haseeb
Energy resource depletion and greenhouse gas emission are two major challenges related to the energy sector, and the paradigm is shifting towards alternative clean and cost-effective energy generation systems. Renewable Energy Systems (RES) have the ability to meet the demand; however, the intermittency nature of RES requires an Energy Storage System (ESS) or grid to mitigate these challenges. Currently, net-metering enabling grid as storage is becoming the cost-effective and reliable method to integrate the RES; however, it increases the grid operational challenges. Therefore, this thesis aims to find the optimum RES sizes with and without ESS to find cost-effective, reliable and stable system. For this, four different ESS scenarios at two different Depth of Discharge (DoD) are evaluated. The methodology is applied to Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus (METU NCC) as a case study. The results show that the 5.35 MW PV with the grid is the most economical configuration, which meets the 96.6% campus demand at 0.0711 $/kWh, while integrating hybrid ESS increases the grid independency and balance but with a higher cost. PV with hybrid ESS meets 95.3% of demand at 0.0901 $/kWh, which is 26.7% higher than PV but increases the grid independency by about 120% with demand-supply fraction of 84.1%. Moreover, hybrid ESS with PV provides the best trade-off between the economic and grid balance. The DoD and battery lifetime are critical parameters to be considered, especially for battery storage; however, the battery is not feasible compared to PHS for METU NCC under net-metering.


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Citation Formats
M. H. Rasool, “Sizing hybrid renewable energy system with storage under net-metering considering grid energy balance,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2022.