On thermodynamics of compact objects

Aydemir, Ufuk
Ren, Jing
With the recent progress in observations of astrophysical black holes, it has become more important to understand in detail the physics of strongly gravitating horizonless objects. If the objects identified in the observations are indeed horizonless and ultracompact, high curvature effects may become important, and their explorations may be intimately related to new physics beyond General Relativity (GR). In this paper, we revisit the concept of statistical thermodynamics in curved spacetime, focusing on self-gravitating compact systems without event horizons. In the literature, gravitational field equations are in general assumed a priori in the thermodynamic treatment, which may lead to difficulties for theories of modified gravity, given the more complicated structure of field equations. Here, we consider thermodynamic behavior of the matter source, instead of the physical mass, hence avoiding the explicit input of field equations in the derivation of thermodynamic laws. We show that the conventional first law of thermodynamics is retrieved once the thermodynamic volume, which is in general different from the geometric volume, is appropriately identified. For demonstrations of our approach, we consider familiar examples of self-gravitating gas in GR, where the connection to previous studies becomes clear. We also discuss 2-2-holes in quadratic gravity, a novel example of black hole mimickers that features super-Planckian curvatures in the interior. These objects exhibit universal high curvature effects in thermodynamics, which happen to be conveniently encoded in the thermodynamic volume. Interesting connections to black hole thermodynamics also emerge when the physical mass is treated as the total internal energy.
Citation Formats
U. Aydemir and J. Ren, “On thermodynamics of compact objects,” CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM GRAVITY, vol. 40, no. 18, pp. 1–24, 2023, Accessed: 00, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/105911.