Virtual water flows of Turkey's agricultural products: A gravity approach

In this study, we use agravity modelto analyze virtual water flows due to the trade of agricultural products for Turkey. We calculate virtual water flows ofagricultural tradefor 326 products and 192 trade partners for 2002–2019. The empirical model of virtual water trade flows for Turkey is formed where the dependent variable is the total amount of water embedded in the trade of agricultural products. Besides the baseline equations, which include conventional explanatory variables like income, population, geographical distance, and affinity dummies, we estimate expanded models that include two measures of water availability and two measures of water pressure. Additionally, variables showing the size of agricultural activity and availability of agricultural land in the partner country are included in the analysis. Furthermore, the gravity models for total virtual water flows are disaggregated into intermediate and consumer goods, providing further insights.
Citation Formats
E. Akbostancı Özkazanç, G. İ. Tunç, and S. Aşık, “Virtual water flows of Turkey’s agricultural products: A gravity approach,” JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, vol. 420, pp. 1–10, 2023, Accessed: 00, 2023. [Online]. Available: