Current Technologies and Future Perspectives in Immunotherapy towards a Clinical Oncology Approach.

Adhikary, Subhamay
Pathak, Surajit
Palani, Vignesh
Acar, Ahmet
Banerjee, Antara
Al-Dewik, Nader I
Essa, Musthafa Mohamed
Mohammed, Sawsan G A A
Qoronfleh, M Walid
Immunotherapy is now established as a potent therapeutic paradigm engendering antitumor immune response against a wide range of malignancies and other diseases by modulating the immune system either through the stimulation or suppression of immune components such as CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. By targeting several immune checkpoint inhibitors or blockers (e.g., PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2, CTLA-4, LAG3, and TIM-3) expressed on the surface of immune cells, several monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antibodies have been developed and already translated clinically. In addition, natural killer cell-based, dendritic cell-based, and CAR T cell therapies have been also shown to be promising and effective immunotherapeutic approaches. In particular, CAR T cell therapy has benefited from advancements in CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology, allowing the generation of several modified CAR T cells with enhanced antitumor immunity. However, the emerging SARS-CoV-2 infection could hijack a patient’s immune system by releasing pro-inflammatory interleukins and cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10, and IFN-γ and TNF-α, respectively, which can further promote neutrophil extravasation and the vasodilation of blood vessels. Despite the significant development of advanced immunotherapeutic technologies, after a certain period of treatment, cancer relapses due to the development of resistance to immunotherapy. Resistance may be primary (where tumor cells do not respond to the treatment), or secondary or acquired immune resistance (where tumor cells develop resistance gradually to ICIs therapy). In this context, this review aims to address the existing immunotherapeutic technologies against cancer and the resistance mechanisms against immunotherapeutic drugs, and explain the impact of COVID-19 on cancer treatment. In addition, we will discuss what will be the future implementation of these strategies against cancer drug resistance. Finally, we will emphasize the practical steps to lay the groundwork for enlightened policy for intervention and resource allocation to care for cancer patients.
Citation Formats
S. Adhikary et al., “Current Technologies and Future Perspectives in Immunotherapy towards a Clinical Oncology Approach.,” BIOMEDICINES, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2024, Accessed: 00, 2024. [Online]. Available: