Open Ended Questions As an Alternative to Multiple Choice: Dilemma in Turkish Examination System

Download
2014
Birgili, Bengi
This study aims to explore differential effects of multiple choice (MC) and open-ended (OE) question formats in terms of metacognitive and affective dimensions. Each dimension (e.g. cognitive strategy, self-checking, worry and effort) was explained to be perceived from common experiences of eighth grade students (N=10), branch teachers (N=16) and academicians (N=6). Phenomenological research was conducted to collect common experiences of participants through cognitive interview. Purposeful sampling method was used to select the participants of the study. According to sampling method, the interviewees from public schools in Istanbul and a private school in Ankara were composed of eighth grade students (N=10), teachers from basic branches of secondary school (N=16) and academicians (N=6) who have background experience with MC and OE. A group of teachers (N=6) in the private school also participated in focus group interview to look into the dimensions of the study altogether. The data collection method was cognitive interview. Interview questions were reviewed by three experts and instruments were developed throughout the study for validity and reliability intentions. Qualitative data analysis was used to explicate collected data. After the collected data had been coded, expressions including parallel patterns were combined into twenty-three categories and four themes emerged. The results of data analysis indicated that OE allows eighth graders to use their cognitive strategy and self-checking metacognitive skills more often than MC. It also indicated that more effort is needed for OE than MC. However, the results also indicated that MC created much more worry than OE.