Seismic resistant and ductile responding rammed earth walls reinforced with steel bars and hoops

Yıldız, Dinçer
In this thesis, improving the strength research and development work was done on rammed-earth wall based structures, which are not common in Turkey. Ramming a thin layer of the earth by using low cost materials like clay has many advantages. Rammed earth wall (REW) examples can be seen in Africa, South America, and India. On the other hand, in Turkey, there is limited researches on rammed earth wall. However, researches were mostly concentrated on rammed earth materials. Within the scope of this thesis, earthquake effect and performance of REW will be investigated. Besides, there is research and development work conducted on reinforced REW by using natural materials in buildings; such as steel hoop confine ments and steel bars inside of the REW. Cement replacement materials like pozzolan was also used in the mixture of REW. In this way, economical, sustainable, and nature friendly REW construction techniques are planned for the Aegean, Marmara, and Black Sea regions, where earth is rich in clayey content and at the same time within highly seismic zones. As this low cost, nature friendly, and earthquake-proof technique becomes widespread, it would be an important step on housing need of people in economical, safe, and healthy structures by using natural materials. In this thesis, REW samples were produced. There was horizontal loading test on unreinforced base model. The behavior and performance of base model on quasi-static reversal lateral load was investigated. The optimum water content of the rammed earth was investigated. Performance improvements by using different reinforcement materials so that it may be suitable to be constructed even in the first seismic zone and/or other seismic zones. First REW with vertical and diagonal reinforcement has shown the best strength performance. However, the last REW with confinement hoops in addition to vertical and diagonal reinforcement has shown the best ductile behavior.