Monitoring the Effects of Ingredients and Baking Methods on Quality of Gluten-Free Cakes by Time-Domain (TD) NMR Relaxometry

Gluten-free products exhibit some undesirable features due to the absence of the gluten network. Effects of ingredient interactions and baking type on the food matrix have not clearly been explored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ingredient and baking types on the quality characteristics of cake by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Carob bean flour containing gluten-free cakes formulated either with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) or whey protein were baked in both conventional and microwave-infrared combination ovens. Specific gravity of batters was measured and cakes were analyzed in terms of weight loss, hardness, and specific volume. Microstructure of cakes was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). NMR relaxometry was used to support the information about water retention, and water-food matrix interactions. Cakes baked in microwave-infrared (MW-IR) combination oven had some undesirable characteristics due to higher weight loss and insufficient gelatinization of stanch which was supported by SEM results. Compartments of relaxation data also indicated two specific proton pools for MW-IR-baked samples, which represented gelatinized and ungelatinized parts of the cakes. Spin-spin relaxation times (T-2) were found to be good indicators for explaining the physical state and distribution of water inside the samples, having Pearson correlation of 0.96, 0.86, and - 0.98 (p < 0.05) between monoexponential T-2 values and hardness, specific volume, and moisture, respectively.


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Lifelong gluten-free diet is essential for patients having celiac disease. Since wheat flour contains gluten, it is necessary to replace wheat flour with other types of gluten-free flours. Rice flour is commonly used in gluten-free baked products as an alternative to wheat flour. The main objective of this study was to develop gluten-free wafer sheet formulations by replacing rice flour partially with different gluten-free flours at different ratios. Rice-corn flour blends, rice-buckwheat flour blends and r...
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Changing consumer demands have directed food industry into development of alternative food products in terms of nutrition, authenticity, innovation and functionality. The main objective of this study was to develop wafer sheets by partial replacement of wheat flour by bean, carob, chickpea and lentil flours. In this regard, firstly nutritional components of the flours were analyzed. Wheat flour was replaced by 10%, 20% and 30% legume flour and its effects on specific gravity and rheology of the batters were...
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The effect of processing on functional ingredients and their in vitro bioaccessibility should be investigated to develop better food products. Tomato pulp was added as a functional ingredient to extrudates. The effects of extrusion on the functional properties of the extrudates and the in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene were investigated. Two different temperature sets were applied during extrusion: 80 degrees C, 90 degrees C, 100 degrees C and 130 degrees C and 80 degrees C, 100 degrees C, 130 degrees C...
Citation Formats
E. Yıldız, S. Güner, S. G. Şümnü, S. Şahin, and H. M. Öztop, “Monitoring the Effects of Ingredients and Baking Methods on Quality of Gluten-Free Cakes by Time-Domain (TD) NMR Relaxometry,” FOOD AND BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY, pp. 1923–1933, 2018, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: