Grasslands of Navarre (Spain), focusing on the Festuco-Brometea: classification, hierarchical expert system and characterisation

García-Mijangos, Itziar
Berastegi, Asun
Biurrun, Idoia
Dembicz, Iwona
JaniŠová, Monika
Kuzemko, Anna
Vynokurov, Denys
Ambarlı, Didem
Etayo, Javier
Filibeck, Goffredo
Jandt, Ute
Natcheva, Rayna
Dengler, Juergen
Aims: To clarify the syntaxonomic position of the grasslands in Navarre, with special focus on the dry grasslands, and to characterise the resulting syntaxonomic units in terms of diagnostic species and ecological conditions. Study area: Navarre (northern Spain). Methods: We sampled 119 plots of 10 m2 following the standardised EDGG methodology and analysed them together with 839 plots of similar size recorded in the 1990. For the classification, we used the modified TWINSPAN algorithm, complemented by the determination of diagnostic species with phi coefficients of association, which led to the creation of an expert system. We conducted these steps in a hierarchical manner for each syntaxonomic rank. We visualised the position of the syntaxa along environmental gradients by means of NMDS. Species richness, and structural and ecological characteristics of the syntaxa were compared by ANOVAs. Results: We could clearly identify five phytosociological classes: Lygeo-Stipetea, Festuco-Brometea, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Nardetea strictae, and Elyno-Seslerietea. Within the Festuco-Brometea a xeric and a meso-xeric order could be distinguished, with two alliances each, and eight associations in total: Thymelaeo-Aphyllanthetum, Jurineo-Festucetum, Helianthemo-Koelerietum, Prunello-Plantaginetum, Carduncello-Brachypodietum, Helictotricho-Seslerietum, Calamintho-Seselietum and Carici-Teucrietum. Conclusions: The combination of numerical methods allowed a consistent and more objective classification of grassland types in Navarre than previous approaches. At the association level, we could largely reproduce the units previously described with traditional phytosociological methods. By contrast, at higher syntaxonomic level, our analyses suggest significant modifications. Most importantly, a major part of the units traditionally included in the Festuco-Ononidetea seem to fall within the Festuco-Brometea. We could show that bryophytes and lichens are core elements of these grasslands and particularly the Mediterranean ones of Lygeo-Stipetea, both in terms of biodiversity and of diagnostic species. We conclude that the combination of our different numerical methods is promising for deriving more objective and reproducible delimitations of syntaxa in a hierarchical manner.
Vegetation Classification and Survey


Yilmaz, Elif; Salihoğlu, Barış; Department of Oceanography (2016-10-12)
Three areas of different ecosystem characteristics in the Northern Levantine Basin is compared using a 1-D multicomponent lower trophic level ecosystem model developed by SALIHOĞLU, B. et al. (2009) (NAGEM). Main focus was to analyze and compare the carrying capacity (PP) and regulatory mechanisms of the nutrients on lower trophic levels. 26 years’ of historical data obtained from METU-IMS data inventory and CORIOLIS was used to form a climatology, to introduce boundary conditions to the model as well as to...
Ecosystem and primary production interactions in three contrasting sites in thenorthern levantine basın
Yılmaz, Elif; Salihoğlu, Barış; Uysal, Zahit; Yumruktepe, Veli; Tezcan, Devrim; Örek, Hasan; Tuğrul, Süleyman (null; 2016-09-16)
To determine the effects of different nutrient dynamics in the Levatine Basin a 1-D multi component lower trophic ecosystem model is used and the carrying capacity and regulatory mechanisms of the nutrients on upper trophic levels at three contrasting marine sites in the Northeastern Mediterranean is assessed. Offshore waters of Mersin Bay, coastal sites of Erdemli and Rhodes Gyre is chosen as they represent distinctive characteristics in terms of nutrients dynamics. Model results suggest distinct mechanism...
Mediterranean shrub classification using multitemporal multi-spectral satellite images
Listiani, Indira Aprilia; Leloğlu, Uğur Murat; Zeydanlı, Uğur Siyami; Department of Geodetic and Geographical Information Technologies (2021-2-12)
Shrublands, which have a crucial role in retaining the ecological balance, constitute an important part of the Mediterranean ecosystems. However, their composition, distribution and dynamics are not well understood. It is necessary to know the distribution of the alliances at regional scale in order to construct models that explain their dynamics. Such models will help researchers to evaluate their role in ecosystems and predict their responses to climate change. Necessary alliance distribution maps can onl...
Population dynamics and ecology of the invasive veined rapa whelk, Rapana venosa in the southern Black Sea
MUTLU, ERHAN; Kıdeyş, Ahmet Erkan; Şahin, Fatih; Erik, Gökhan; Aksu, Hakan; Erdem, Ercan; Karayücel, Sedat; Bat, Levent (2022-05-05)
© 2022 Elsevier LtdSpatial and temporal changes in some ecological characteristics (i.e. biomass, abundance, morphometrics, sex-composition, growth parameters and population dynamics) of the invasive veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa) were studied off Sinop Bay, in the southern Black Sea. The whelk specimens were sampled from three depths (15 m, 25 m and 35 m) at monthly intervals between November 2005 and October 2007. Custom-made pots were deployed for the capture of R. venosa individuals. Monthly distribu...
Changes of Eutrofication Indicator Parameters (TP, DIN, Chl-a and TRIX) in the Cilician Basin (Northeast Mediterranean)
TUĞRUL, SÜLEYMAN; Uysal, Zahit; Erdogan, Emine; Yucel, Nebil (2011-01-01)
Eutrophication processes and changes in coastal ecosystem are determined by the coastal/open sea interactions and rates of nutrient pollution. The Cilician Basin shelf waters are affected not only by intense industrial activities and increased population, but also by complex atmosphere-sea-land interactions. There is a recognizable difference between water qualities of Mersin bay coastal and the Cilician open waters depleted in nutrients. Eutrophic conditions have developed in the eastern bay shallow waters...
Citation Formats
I. García-Mijangos et al., “Grasslands of Navarre (Spain), focusing on the Festuco-Brometea: classification, hierarchical expert system and characterisation,” Vegetation Classification and Survey, vol. 2, pp. 0–231, 2021, Accessed: 00, 2022. [Online]. Available: