Hemicellulose Extraction From Agro-Food Industrial Wastes and Its Apllication in Foods

Yılmaz, Hilal
Hemicellulose is a valuable component of agro-food industrial wastes. Although there are some potential usage areas of hemicelluloses such as drug manufacture, encapsulation, and emulsification in food processing plants, they are not extensively utilized. In this study, effective extraction methods of the hemicelluloses from agro-food industrial wastes (corn peels and sugar beet pulp) and their application as coating material for banana fruits were investigated. Firstly, the effects of raw material type, particle size, and extraction conditions (alkaline concentration, temperature, time) and methods (direct alkaline extraction, alkaline extraction after component removal, and acidic extraction method) on hemicellulose yields were investigated. Sugar beet pulp and corn wastes were used as raw material. Alkali extraction resulted in 40.2% pure extracts while acidic hydrolysis gave only 27.4% purity in the same extraction conditions. The optimal extraction conditions were found as 30°C temperature, 10% NaOH, and 24 h time (64.3%). It was also observed that removal of constituents such as fat, protein, starch, and soluble sugar increased the purity of hemicellulose from 40.2 to 58.2% at the same conditions. After finding optimum hemicellulose yield for practicle use, it was used as edible coating material to prevent darkening of banana fruits and any quality losses. On the fourth day of storage at 4 ºC, there was no detected fungal decay of coated bananas; however, 20% of uncoated bananas (control) were infected. Moreover, the control group lost 5.1% of total weight but coated samples with 1%, 1.5%, and 2% hemicellulose (HC) lost 3.6%, 3.3%, and 3.1% of their total weight, respectively. Hemicellulose coating also protected firmness of bananas (701.1 gf for coated and 509.6 gf for uncoated samples at the end of 4th day). Color was another important quality parameter and it was showed that lightness and yellowness of coated bananas were preserved with very little losses at the end of storage period while control samples turned brown at an unacceptable level. The results indicated that using both low alkaline concentration and low temperature allows to recover higher quality extracts. In addition, hemicellulose showed a characteristic of a good edible coating material for banana in order to preserve their visual acceptance and other quality parameters.
Citation Formats
H. Yılmaz, “Hemicellulose Extraction From Agro-Food Industrial Wastes and Its Apllication in Foods,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2012.