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An aerodynamic design optimization method is presented that generates an airfoil, producing a specified surface pressure distribution at a transonic speed. The design procedure is based on the coupled Euler and boundary-layer technology to include the rotational viscous physics which characterizes transonic flows. A least-square optimization technique is used to minimize pressure discrepancies between the target and designed airfoils. The method is demonstrated with several examples at transonic speeds. The design optimization process converges quickly, that makes the method attractive for practical engineering applications.