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Rheology, particle-size distribution, and stability of low-fat mayonnaise produced via double emulsions

In this study, the effects of the double emulsification method on the rheological properties, particle size, and stability of low-fat mayonnaise were studied. Different water-phase-to-oil ratios (2:8 and 4:6) of primary emulsions and different stabilizer types (sodium caseinate, xanthan gum, and lecithin-whey protein concentrate) were used to produce double-emulsified mayonnaise. As a control sample, mayonnaise was prepared conventionally. Sodium caseinate was found to be the most efficient stabilizer. In the presence of sodium caseinate, the stability and apparent viscosity of double emulsified mayonnaise increased but their particle sizes decreased. It was found that flow behavior of double-emulsified and conventionally prepared mayonnaise could be described by the power law model. The double-emulsified mayonnaise samples were not different from the control samples in terms of stability and particle size. In addition, using the double emulsion method, it was possible to reduce the oil content of mayonnaise to 36.6%.