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Recent developments of oleogel utilizations in bakery products

Demirkesen, Ilkem
Mert, Behiç
Available evidence from clinical trials suggests the replacement of saturated fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as with essential fatty acids to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Thus, the importance of limiting of saturated fatty acid intake as well as the removal of trans-fatty acids from the diet have also emphasized. Conversely, recent studies have questioned the simple explanation of the relationship of dietary saturated fats and of individual saturated fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. Although, controversies continue to exist, current recommendations have highlighted that the importance of a critical look at the evaluation of scientific understanding about dietary fats and health. Therefore, manufacturers and scientists have focused on seeking alternative ways to modify or structure liquid oil without the use of saturated and trans-fats and hence to offer the functionality of fats to food products without changing the nutritional profile of liquid oil. However, since shortening as the essential component of bakery products affects dough structure and the desired final product attributes, the replacement of shortening creates a big challenge in bakery problems. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the functions of shortening in bakery products and of the field of oleogels with special importance on the updates from recent years and their possible applications in bakery products. With the incorporation of oleogels or oleogel/shortening blends, rheological properties of dough/batters as well as physicochemical properties of resulted products may be resembled to those made with shortening. Conversely, the application of this technique had a role on retaining solid-like properties while possesses a healthier fatty acid profile. Very recent study indicated that gradual replacement of shortening with oleogels have potential for partial reduction of saturated fat without chancing physical properties of gluten free aerated products. Thus, the applications of oleogels may also present more alternatives for celiac sufferers' diet.