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Hydrolysis of Hazelnut Shells as a Carbon Source for Bioprocessing Applications and Fermentation

Hazelnut shells are generated in large amounts from hazelnut processing. Currently, it is used as fuel. However, reuse in bioprocessing can release remarkable content of sugars, which can be used for production of additives such as enzymes widely used in the food industry. Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine the effect of single and combined chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis on the production of fermentable sugars from hazelnut shells. Batch hydrolysis was carried out under various conditions to select optimal conditions. The results revealed that an optimal sugar concentration of about 19.2 g/l was achieved after 3.42% (w/w) dilute acid pretreatment conducted at 130 degrees C for 31.7 min and enzymatic load of 200 U/g for 24 h. The overall sugar yield was calculated as 72.4% (g reducing sugar/g total carbohydrate). Therefore, hazelnut shells can be considered a suitable feedstock to compete with synthetic sugars used in fermentations.