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Katılımcı senaryo tekniği yardımıyla tarihi kentsel alan için iyileştirme stratejisinin belirlenmesi

2013-12-1
Başaran Uysal, Arzu
Participation of citizens in decisions related to their cities and neighborhoods has been discussed within the framework of participatory democracy since the 1960's. Public participation ensures legitimacy and accountability of the decision maker and improves the quality of decisions. On the other hand, debates continue on the impact of participants on the decision and indicators of successful participation. In this study, the participation process executed in order to support the decision process about the revitalization and renewal of an historic pattern is analysed. The area planned for improvement is located in the historical city centre of canakkale, Fevzipasa Quarter, where Romani population live. The project area (Zafer Square and its vicinity) consists of two little squares, a street that links these squares and a part of the Saricay riverside. Although the project area is parallel to the historical carsi Street, which is used intensively by the city residents and tourists, it is a twilight zone. Zafer Square and its vicinity, which contains monumental and civil architectural samples, reflect the multi-cultural and multi-faith history of the city. This area is like a transition region among settlements where Romani people live with its pedestrianized trade axis. The question as to which function this area should have was investigated by the municipality with a participatory method. Previous participatory experiences about Fevzipasa Quarter and historical urban areas enabled a participatory decision-making process to be pursued in relation to this area and facilitated the participation process. Among strategic decision making methods, SWOT analysis and participatory scenario analysis were used in decision making process. The participation process included focus group meetings held with stakeholders, individual interviews, a questionnaire filled by inhabitants of the quarter and tradesmen, and a workshop organized openly for all citizens. Focus groups were determined to be neighborhood residents and shopkeepers, tourism sector, non-governmental organizations and professional chambers, and government agencies. During the participation process which lasted for 3 months, the organization was managed by Canakkale Municipality and the author of this article undertook the duty of facilitating the meetings. Four development suggestions concerning Zafer Square and its vicinity were identified by participants. The first suggestion proposed that this area should be designed in accordance with the needs of the residents. This approach is expressed by both residents and some representatives of the non-governmental organizations. The second suggestion, made by representatives of tourism sector, it is about developing this area with a complete urban tourism strategy. The third suggestion was to transform this area into a cultural activity ground for the city. The fourth suggestion was to maintain its educational function which existed in the past and which was also adopted in recent times. The output of the participation process and current situation were considered, SWOT analysis was performed and two main development tendencies were detected; to develop and maintain the current "housing and education" or "housing and culture" function. Even though the tourism function is discussed considerably, it includes many uncertainties. The preservation of historical environments and the sustainability of the quarter are identified as the primary components, regardless of scenario. Two scenarios are created (A and B scenarios) with an intuitive logic approach. A scenario aims to preserve the current quarter fabric and increase the environmental quality. A scenario can be put into practice in a short time by Canakkale Municipality. It does not require co-operation with other stakeholders. Also, this scenario will ensure an increase in the interaction of the city and neighborhood in the long term. B scenario adopts a strategy where Zafer Square and its surroundings makes a contribution to the cultural tourism of the city, and hosts many cultural activities. This scenario contains a long-term development strategy and requires the cooperation of the urban actors. It also contains a social program that runs in parallel in order to empower the Romani people socioeconomically. Canakkale Municipality preferred A scenario and have partially put it into practice. The participation process created awareness about the area, and the subjects of preserving historical areas and the empowerment of Romans were re-opened for discussion in the city.