Physics of randomness and regularities for cities, languages, and their lifetimes and family trees

Tuncay, C.
Time evolution of the cities and languages is considered in terms of multiplicative noise(1) and fragmentation(2) processes; where power law (Pareto-Zipf law)(3) and slightly asymmetric log-normal (Gauss)4 distribution result for the size distribution of the cities and for that of the languages, respectively. The cities and the languages are treated differently (and as connected; for example, the languages split in terms of splitting the cities, etc.) and thus two distributions are obtained in the same computation at the same time. Evolutions of lifetimes and families for the cities and the languages are also studied. We suggest that the regularities may be evolving out of randomness, in terms of the relevant processes.


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Time evolution of number of cities, population of cities, world population, and size distribution of present languages are studied in terms of a new model, where population of each city increases by a random rate and decreases by a random division. World population and size distribution of languages come out in good agreement with the available empirical data.
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A new methodology was introduced to investigate the pattern formation in time series systems due to their viscoelastic behavior. Four stochastic processes, uniform distribution, normal distribution, Nasdaq-100 stock market index, and a melody were studied within this context. The time series data were converted into vectorial forms in a scattering diagram. The sequential vectors can be split into its in-line (or conservative) and out-of-line (or dissipative) components. Thus, one can define the storage and ...
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The concept of integrable boundary conditions is applied to hydrodynamic type systems. Examples of such boundary conditions for dispersionless Toda systems are obtained. The close relation of integrable boundary conditions with integrable reductions in multifield systems is observed. The problem of consistency of boundary conditions with the Hamiltonian formulation is discussed. Examples of Hamiltonian integrable hydrodynamic type systems on a segment and a semiline are presented. (C) 2008 American Institut...
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In the present work, genetic algorithm method (CA) is applied to the problem of impurity at the center of a spherical quantum dot for infinite confining potential case. For this purpose, any trial variational wave function is considered for the ground state and energy values are calculated. In applying the GA to the problem under investigation, two different approaches were followed. Furthermore, a standard variational procedure is also performed to determine the energy eigenvalues. The results obtained by ...
Citation Formats
C. Tuncay, “Physics of randomness and regularities for cities, languages, and their lifetimes and family trees,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS C, pp. 1641–1658, 2007, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: