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Energy efficient routing with directional antennas in wireless sensor networks

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2018-10
Kılıç, Kemal
Without measurements, sustainable development effort can not progress in the right direction. Wireless sensor networks are vital for monitoring in real time and making accurate measurements for such an endeavor. However small energy storage in the sensors can become a bottleneck if the wireless sensor network is not optimized at the hardware and software level. Directional antennas are such optimization technologies at the hardware level. They have advantages over the omnidirectional antennas, such as high gain, less interference, longer transmission range, and less power consumption. In wireless sensor networks, most of the energy is consumed for communication. Considering the limited energy in small scale batteries of the sensors, energy efficient (aware) routing, is one of the most important software optimization techniques. The main goal of the technique is to improve the lifetime of the wireless sensor networks. In the light of these observations, it is desirable to do a coupled design of directional antennas with network software, for fully exploiting the advantages offered by directional antenna technology. In this thesis, the possibilities of doing such integrated design are surveyed and improvements are suggested. The design of the proposed microstrip patch antenna array is discussed and the performance characteristics are assessed through simulations. In the benchmarks, the proposed routing method showed improvements in energy usage compared to the existing approaches.