Non-linear hyperspectral unmixing with 3D convolutional encoders

Özdemir, Okan Bilge
Koz, Alper
Yardımcı Çetin, Yasemin
Deep learning-based methods are accepted as a viable alternative to conventional statistical and geometrical methods for hyperspectral unmixing in recent years. These methods are however mainly based on linear mixture assumption on the hyperspectral data. The vast majority of presented algorithms process individual hyperspectral pixels while neglecting the spatial relationships between pixels. In order to address these two missing aspects, we propose a convolutional autoencoder-based hyperspectral unmixing method in this paper. The proposed structure incorporates the spatial neighbourhood relation with its convolutional layers in the first stage and possible non-linearities in the observed data with the included non-linear layer in the final stage. The experiments have first revealed that Adam optimizer have the best performance among different optimization methods for the proposed network. Second, the proposed method has indicated about 20–40% accuracy improvement in terms of mean squared error (MSE) metric compared to traditional hyperspectral abundance estimation methods. Third, the contribution of the non-linear layer is verified by comparing the proposed network with the conventional LMM-based autoencoder structure without the non-linear layer. Finally, the accuracy improvement for the proposed network with non-linear layer compared to the state-of-the-art deep learning-based methods using linear mixture assumption is evaluated in terms of MSE and reported as about 10% and 20% for synthetic and real data, respectively.
International Journal of Remote Sensing


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Citation Formats
O. B. Özdemir, A. Koz, and Y. Yardımcı Çetin, “Non-linear hyperspectral unmixing with 3D convolutional encoders,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 3236–3257, 2022, Accessed: 00, 2023. [Online]. Available: