Private School Effects on Human Capital Production - The Evidence from Türkiye

Özbaylanlı, Bilgehan
The human capital theory establishes the vital impacts of the human capital produced by education on productive skills valued in the labor market and long-term economic growth. This study focuses on private school effects on human capital production. The studied period 2013-2017 covers an exam (TEOG) taken by all private and public school students, a national-scale voucher program, and a rapid expansion of private sector enrolment. The study utilizes population-level data covering 4.8 million 15 years olds. The education production function approach frames the conceptual model for analysis. The human capital measure is the standardized TEOG score. I first explored whether private schools produce more human capital than public schools ceteris paribus. I find a combined effect of 0.62 standard deviations (sd) due to both school inputs and peer inputs of private schools and a lower bound of 0.25 sd for school inputs alone. Second, I estimate the net competition effect of the private school share on the mean public school achievement in each province. I find an OLS estimate of -0.045 sd and an IV estimate of -0.036 sd. Third, I explored whether the gender achievement gap differs by school sector through a joint test scores and grades model. I estimate a gap of 0.30 sd for TEOG scores and 0.44 sd for GPAs in public schools. These reduce to 0.13 and 0.12, respectively, in private schools. When differenced, the remaining gender grading gap is 0.14 sd in public schools and 0.01 sd in private schools.
Citation Formats
B. Özbaylanlı, “Private School Effects on Human Capital Production - The Evidence from Türkiye,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2023.