Update for reactive transport modeling of the Kızıldere geothermal field to reduce uncertainties in the early inspections

Akın, Taylan
Akın, Serhat
The development of carbon capture and storage techniques has become essential to reduce and mitigating CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. CarbFix1 and CarbFix2 projects carried out in Iceland demonstrated that the emissions of waste CO2 gas from geothermal power plants can be captured and mixed with the effluent geofluid and subsequently injected back into the geothermal reservoir. This experience gained in the CarbFix projects expanded into other geothermal fields around Europe, and one of the demonstration sites is the geothermal field in Turkey, Kızıldere. This paper focuses on the results of an updated study on early field evaluations with reactive transport simulations. In the new three-dimensional numerical model, the geological formations and fault zones were updated according to the well-logs data. Based on the tracer tests performed in the field, the anisotropic permeabilities between the wells were evaluated and imposed into the model. Geofluid chemistry, mineral components, and the volume fractions used as input in the simulations are modified depending on the performed laboratory experiments on the metamorphic schists taken from the geothermal site (i.e. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning-electron microscope (SEM), and batch reactor tests). Different thermodynamic databases such as Lawrance Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Thermoddem databases were tested using PHREEQC and TOUGHREACT programs for consistency with experiments. The thermodynamic conditions and the geofluid-rock-CO2 interactions prevent the mineralization of CO2 in the reservoir. This outcome differs from CarbFix projects in terms of the carbonization process, but the CO2 injection is still reliable with solubility-trapping in a geothermal reservoir to partially mitigate the emission. Roughly, 200 kt of CO2 in 10 years can be safely injected into the geothermal reservoir. According to the new analysis, the ratio of magnesium, sodium, and potassium varies in solid solution series of feldspars and clay minerals as albite end-member and montmorillonite/illite end-members, respectively. The evaluations of solid solution reactions are relatively limited in the law of mass action approach used by PHREEQC and TOUGHREACT.
Citation Formats
T. Akın and S. Akın, “Update for reactive transport modeling of the Kızıldere geothermal field to reduce uncertainties in the early inspections,” TURKISH JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, no. 32, pp. 541–554, 2023, Accessed: 00, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/103711.