Development and directed energy deposition of high strength Hf5Mo15Nb35Ta25Ti20 refractory high entropy alloys

In this study, a novel HfMoNbTaTi refractory high entropy alloy was designed by empirical calculations and CALculation of PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) method by using ThermoCalc software. Directed energy deposition (DED) based additive manufacturing process was used to produce the alloy. After the process parameter determination studies using single-track productions, cuboids were produced. The microstructural investigations showed that while the central region of cuboids has large grains, the outer region has a dendritic structure with some unmolten Mo powders. Although columnar grain formation, which is the general characteristic of directional solidification, was observed at some points, irregularly shaped grains were dominant in the structure. Moreover, there were micron to nano-sized Hf-Ti-O particles inside the grains and especially around the grain boundaries. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses confirmed the formation of disordered body-centered cubic (BCC) Hf5Mo15Nb35Ta25Ti20 alloy with ∼6 vol% of Hf-Ti-O particles. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses indicated that there is a slight texture in the building direction along 〈111〉. In order to determine the stability of these alloys, ex-situ heat treatments coupled with XRD studies were conducted. As opposed to CALPHAD calculations it was not observed any HCP phase formation. Compression test results showed that Hf5Mo15Nb35Ta25Ti20 alloys have high strength (σy = ∼1300 MPa) and high compressive ductility with good strain-hardening ability. Theoretical calculations revealed that the strength of the alloy mainly originated from solid solution strengthening.
Materials Characterization
Citation Formats
A. Özalp, C. Okuyucu, B. Koc, O. El-Atwani, and E. Aydoğan Güngör, “Development and directed energy deposition of high strength Hf5Mo15Nb35Ta25Ti20 refractory high entropy alloys,” Materials Characterization, vol. 209, pp. 0–0, 2024, Accessed: 00, 2024. [Online]. Available: