FPGA-friendly compact and efficient AES-like 8 × 8 S-box

Malal, Ahmet
Tezcan, Cihangir
One of the main layers in the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is the substitution layer, where an 8 × 8 S-Box is used 16 times. The substitution layer provides confusion and makes the algorithm resistant to cryptanalysis techniques. Therefore, the security of the algorithm is also highly dependent on this layer. However, the cost of implementing 8 × 8 S-Box on FPGA platforms is considerably higher than other layers of the algorithm. Since S-Boxes are repeatedly used in the algorithm, the cost of the algorithm highly comes from the substitution layer. In 2005, Canright used different extension fields to represent AES S-Box to get FPGA-friendly compact designs. The best optimization proposed by Canright reduced the gate-area of the AES S-Box implementation by 20%. In this study, we use the same optimization methods that Canright used to optimize AES S-Box on hardware platforms. Our purpose is not to optimize AES S-Box; we aim to create another 8 × 8 S-Box which is strong and compact enough for FPGA platforms. We create an 8 × 8 S-Box using the inverse field operation as in the case of AES S-Box. We use another irreducible polynomial to represent the finite field and get an FPGA-friendly compact and efficient 8 × 8 S-Box. The finite field we propose provides the same level of security against cryptanalysis techniques with a 3.125% less gate-area on Virtex-7 and Artix-7 FPGAs compared to Canright's results. Moreover, our proposed S-Box requires 11.76% less gate on Virtex-4 FPGAs. These gate-area improvements are beneficial for resource-constraint IoT devices and allow more copies of the S-Box for algorithm parallelism. Therefore, we claim that our proposed S-Box is more compact and efficient than AES S-Box. Cryptographers who need an 8 × 8 S-Box can use our proposed S-Box in their designs instead of AES S-Box with the same level of security but better efficiency.
Microprocessors and Microsystems
Citation Formats
A. Malal and C. Tezcan, “FPGA-friendly compact and efficient AES-like 8 × 8 S-box,” Microprocessors and Microsystems, vol. 105, pp. 0–0, 2024, Accessed: 00, 2024. [Online]. Available: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=85185006412&origin=inward.