Multimodal data fusion using sparse canonical correlation analysis and cooperative learning: a COVID-19 cohort study

Through technological innovations, patient cohorts can be examined from multiple views with high-dimensional, multiscale biomedical data to classify clinical phenotypes and predict outcomes. Here, we aim to present our approach for analyzing multimodal data using unsupervised and supervised sparse linear methods in a COVID-19 patient cohort. This prospective cohort study of 149 adult patients was conducted in a tertiary care academic center. First, we used sparse canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to identify and quantify relationships across different data modalities, including viral genome sequencing, imaging, clinical data, and laboratory results. Then, we used cooperative learning to predict the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients: Intensive care unit admission. We show that serum biomarkers representing severe disease and acute phase response correlate with original and wavelet radiomics features in the LLL frequency channel (cor(Xu(1), Zv(1)) = 0.596, p value < 0.001). Among radiomics features, histogram-based first-order features reporting the skewness, kurtosis, and uniformity have the lowest negative, whereas entropy-related features have the highest positive coefficients. Moreover, unsupervised analysis of clinical data and laboratory results gives insights into distinct clinical phenotypes. Leveraging the availability of global viral genome databases, we demonstrate that the Word2Vec natural language processing model can be used for viral genome encoding. It not only separates major SARS-CoV-2 variants but also allows the preservation of phylogenetic relationships among them. Our quadruple model using Word2Vec encoding achieves better prediction results in the supervised task. The model yields area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy values of 0.87 and 0.77, respectively. Our study illustrates that sparse CCA analysis and cooperative learning are powerful techniques for handling high-dimensional, multimodal data to investigate multivariate associations in unsupervised and supervised tasks.
npj Digital Medicine
Citation Formats
Y. Aydın Son, “Multimodal data fusion using sparse canonical correlation analysis and cooperative learning: a COVID-19 cohort study,” npj Digital Medicine, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1–11, 2024, Accessed: 00, 2024. [Online]. Available: