Combined effects of the 4-nonylphenol and fish kairomones on the survival, morphology and life history traits of Daphnia magna Straus

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Özcan, Hatice Elif
Daphnia has evolved morphological and life history defenses against predators and these appear to be mediated by chemicals (kairomones) released by the predator. Furthermore, anthropogenic stressors including alkylphenols have been shown to affect several characteristics of Daphnia. Daphnia magna that were grown in the fish-conditioned water and nonfish- conditioned water were exposed to 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.15, 0.5 mg l'1 NP concentrations in the acute toxicity and 0.001, 0.005, 0.01 mg l"1 NP concentrations in the chronic toxicity experiments. In the chronic toxicity experiment, two different food levels were used. The 24 and 48h LC50 values of NP for the individuals were determined as 0.394 mg l"1 and 0.149 mg l"1, respectively in the presence of fish kairomone. 111However, in the absence of fish kairomone LC50 values could not be calculated due to high survival rate. In the chronic toxicity experiment, fish kairomone and NP significantly decreased the survival of the test organisms compared to the effects of either treatment. The effect of fish kairomone was stronger than the NP concentrations; however, at the highest NP concentration the effect was pronounced. Presence of fish kairomone and NP together significantly increased the maturation time whereas fish kairomone itself significantly decreased the maturation size. The high food level and the NP doses increased the helmet size, and the former also increased clutch size. In conclusion, exposure to fish kairomones enhanced the sensitivity to the NP doses, which were very low in this study, through reducing the survival and affecting the life history characteristics.

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Citation Formats
H. E. Özcan, “Combined effects of the 4-nonylphenol and fish kairomones on the survival, morphology and life history traits of Daphnia magna Straus,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 0.