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Sequence stratigraphic architecture of Mut basin along ramp to reefal margin transition and its diagenetic imprint

Derman, H. Armağan
The whole Mediterranean was a site of carbonate deposition during Miocene. Unlike other Miocene basins in the Mediteranean, the importance of Mut Basin lies in its tectonically undisturbed nature that provides excellent exposures to study sequence stratigraphic architecture and carbonate sedimentology. Opening of Mut Basin began during Oligocene; carbonate deposition started during Early Miocene. The pre-Miocene rocks are characterized by (from bottom to top), 1. ophiolites and Mesozoic limestones, 2. Eocene lacustrine limestones, 3. Burdigalian fluvial sandstones and conglomerates. The carbonate deposition began in Miocene, settling on the preexisting topography. Carbonates have been deposited in a ramp setting, where several sequences formed. The ramp was partly subaerially exposed during Early Miocene due to relative sea level fall; however, no significant lowstand deposits were developed. The subsequent sea level rise caused transgressive deposits to overlie this ramp sequence. The patch reefs on this ramp exhibit a keep-up type depositional setting. As the transgression continued, the basin topography controlled the type of depositional setting. Hence, a transition from ramp to reefal margin type setting occurred. In landward direction the topographically low areas became back reef lagoonal part of this reefal margin. A mature reefal environment formed during highstand times, which is characterized by a rich coral fauna / algal flora in the basinward side. Some of the patch reefs of the ramp transformed into pinnacle reefs. Diagenetic alterations are mostly related to duration and degree of sea level fall, and therefore related to sequence boundaries. The Miocene carbonates in the study area consist of six sequences which may be used for correlation with other Miocene carbonates of the Mediterranean region.