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Suburbanization in Turkey within the process of integration to global development and a new life-style settlement

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2004
Erişen, Oya
This study aims to analyze the emergence and evaluation of a new type of suburbanization in Türkiye, which are concomitant with the rise of new middle class having a high purchasing power. It examines different urbanization and suburbanization processes in various societies and demonstrates that the suburbanization of Türkiye does not exactly fit in these models. Such a suburban expansion is taking place under the prevailing impact of political economy in the world and leads to a social segregation within metropolitan areas, which is argued to become permanent. Upper middle class have developed privatized, enclosed, and monitored exclusive spaces of residence, work, leisure, and consumption. The main focus of the study, therefore, is the gated communities, which is the last extension of suburbanization. In this thesis, the gated communities are mainly residential in character and offer a new concept of life-style, which is based upon the idea of total security and retreat from the illnesses of the urban core in terms of noise, dust, disorder, crowds and related issues. It is argued that, in the specific case of Angora Evleri-Kooperatif-18, gated communities can be viewed as a further theme of fragmentation of the city of Ankara. The new urban fragmentation indicates a dual process of increasing social and spatial polarization on the urban land. These dualities have been identified in society. One part of the society has experienced affluence, and success while the other has suffered degradation. The economic growth has been at the expense of sharp increases both at the top and bottom ends of the income distribution. Social inequality, in return, has manifested itself spatially.