Zinc borate production in a batch reactor

Gürhan, Deniz
Zinc borate is a flame retardant additive used in polymers, wood applications and textile products. There are different types of zinc borate having different chemical composition and structure. In this study, the production of zinc borate that had the molecular formula of 2ZnO.3B2O3.3,5H2O was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reaction parameters on the properties of zinc borate that had been synthesized by the reaction of boric acid and zinc oxide at the existence of the seed crystals and to determine the optimum experimental conditions for zinc borate production reaction. Reaction kinetics was also investigated to find a suitable kinetics model. The effect of boric acid to zinc oxide ratio -H3BO3:ZnO ratio- (3:1, 3.5:1, 5:1 and 7:1), the particle size of zinc oxide (10æm and 25æm), stirring rate (275 rpm, 400 rpm, 800 rpm and 1600 rpm), temperature (75°, 85° and 95°) and size of seed crystals (10æm and smaller size) on reaction rate, reaction completion time, composition and particle size distribution of zinc borate were investigated. Experiments were performed in a continuously stirring, temperature controlled batch reactor with a volume of 1.5L. During the experiments samples were taken to be analyzed in regular time intervals. The analyses of the samples gave the concentration change of zinc oxide and boron oxide in the solid as well as the conversion of zinc oxide to zinc borate with respect to time and the rate of reaction was calculated. The products were also analyzed for particle size distribution. The experimental results showed that the reaction rate increased with the increasing H3BO3:ZnO ratio, particle size of zinc oxide, stirring rate and temperature. The reaction completion time was also decreased by increasing H3BO3:ZnO ratio, stirring rate and temperature. The particle size of final product, zinc borate, decreased with


Impact modified polystyrene based nanocomposites
Yeniova, Canan Esma; Yılmazer, Ülkü; Department of Chemical Engineering (2009)
Polystyrene, PS, is a preferable polymer in industry, but, its brittle characteristic restricts its utilization. The aim of this study is to improve the impact strength of PS by the help of elastomeric materials SEBS-g-MA and E-BA-GMA. In order to prevent the reduction in the tensile strength of the materials, three different types of organic montmorillonites, MMT, (Cloisite® 30B, 25A and 15A) were used as fillers. Nanocomposite preparation was performed in a co-rotating twin screw extruder. Initially elast...
Production of nano alumoxane from aluminum hydroxide
Sezgiker, Korhan; Gündüz, Güngör; Department of Chemical Engineering (2010)
Alumina (Al2O3) is one of the most widely used engineering ceramic. It can be used in a wide range of applications like electrical/thermal insulation, wear resistance, structural refractories, cutting tools, abrasives, catalyst carriers and coatings. A traditional ceramic process has several steps (i.e. powder synthesis and processing, shape forming, drying, organic burnout and densification). Accessing powders with sizes in the range of a couple of micrometers down to several tens of nanometers is consider...
Dissolution of colemanite and crystallization of gypsum during boric acid production in a batch reactor
Erdoğdu, Anıl; Eroğlu, İnci; Department of Chemical Engineering (2004)
One of the most commonly used boron compounds, boric acid, is produced by dissolving colemanite (2CaO₉3B2O3₉5H2O) in aqueous sulfuric acid whereby gypsum (CaSO4₉2H2O) is formed as a byproduct and must be separated from the main product. This process consists of two steps, dissolution of colemanite and formation of gypsum. The amount of boric acid formed depends on the first step, dissolution of colemanite. In the latter step, gypsum crystals are formed and stay in the reaction mixture to grow up to a size l...
Chemical vapor deposition of boron carbide
Karaman, Mustafa; Özbelge, Önder; Department of Chemical Engineering (2007)
Boron carbide was produced on tungsten substrate in a dual impinging-jet CVD reactor from a gas mixture of BCl3, CH4, and H2. The experimental setup was designed to minimise the effect of mass transfer on reaction kinetics, which, together with the on-line analysis of the reactor effluent by FTIR, allowed a detailed kinetic investigation possible. The phase and morphology studies of the products were made by XPS, XRD,micro hardness and SEM methods. XPS analysis showed the existence of chemical states attrib...
Production and characterization of activated carbon from sulphonated styrene divinylbenzene copolymer
Abdallah, Wisam; Yücel, Hayrettin; Department of Chemical Engineering (2004)
Activated carbon was produced from strong cation-exchange resins, sulphonated styrene divinylbenzene copolymers originally in H+ form, by means of carbonization and steam activation in an electrical furnace. One macroporous resin produced by BAYER Chemicals Inc., Lewatit MonoPlus SP 112 H, was used in the research. Products of carbonization and activation were characterized by using BET, Mercury Porosimetry, Helium Pycnometry and SEM techniques. The effect of carbonization time and temperature on the BET su...
Citation Formats
D. Gürhan, “Zinc borate production in a batch reactor,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2005.