Production and characterization of activated carbon from hazelnut shell and hazelnut husk

Download
2005
Çuhadar, Çiğdem
In this study, the pore structures and surface areas of activated carbons produced from hazelnut shell and hazelnut husk by chemical activation technique using phosphoric acid (H3PO4), at relatively low temperatures (300, 400 and 500oC), were investigated. Raw materials were impregnated with different H3PO4 solutions of 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% by weight. To produce activated carbon, acid impregnated samples were heated; at a heating rate of 20 oC/min to the final carbonization temperature and held at that temperature for 2 hours. The volume and surface areas of mesopores (2-50 nm) and BET surface areas of the samples were determined by N2 gas adsorption technique at -195.6oC. The pore volume and the area of the micropores with diameters less than 2 nm were determined by CO2 adsorption measurements at 0oC by the application of Dubinin Radushkevich equation. N2 (BET) surface areas of the hazelnut shell and hazelnut husk based activated carbons were in the range of 242-596 m2/g and 705-1565 m2/g, respectively. CO2 (D-R) surface areas of the hazelnut shell and hazelnut husk based activated carbons were in the range of 433-576 m2/g and 376-724 m2/g, respectively. The highest BET surface area was obtained as 596 m2/g among hazelnut shell based samples (HS 60.4; shell impregnated with 60 wt.% H3PO4, carbonized at 400 ðC) and as 1565 m2/g among hazelnut husk based samples (HH 40.4; husk impregnated with 40 wt.% H3PO4, carbonized at 400 ðC). Hazelnut shell based activated carbons were mainly microporous while hazelnut husk based ones were mesoporous.

Suggestions

The use of gold and silver nanoparticles for surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) of Dyes
Öztürk, Tacettin; Volkan, Mürvet; Department of Chemistry (2010)
This study focuses on preparing surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) substrates for use in the enhancement of the emission signal of rhodamine B and fluorescein dyes. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely utilized owing to its high sensitivity. SEF is a process where the interactions of fluorophores with the localized surface plasmons of metal nanoparticles results in fluorescence enhancement, increased photostability and rates of system radiative decay which leads to a decreased lifetime. One of the mos...
Preparation and characterization of carbon supported platinum nanocatalysts with different surfactants for C1 to C3 alcohol oxidations
Ertan, Salih; Gökağaç Arslan, Gülsün; Department of Chemistry (2011)
In this thesis, carbon supported platinum nanoparticles have been prepared by using PtCl4 as a starting material and 1-octanethiol, 1-decanethiol, 1-dodecanethiol and 1-hexadecanethiol as surfactants for methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol oxidation reactions. The structure, particle sizes and surface morphologies of the platinum were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD and TEM results indicate that all prepared catalysts have ...
Synthesis and characterization of hyperbranched and air drying fatty acid based resins
Bat, Erhan; Kisakurek, D; Akhmedov, IM (Elsevier BV, 2006-04-01)
In this research four hyperbranched resins having fatty acid residues were synthesized. Dipentaerythritol, which was used as the core molecule of the resins, was twice esterified with dimethylol propionic acid. This resin was then esterified with the castor oil fatty acids. The hydroxyl group present in the ricinoleic acid which constitutes almost 87% of the castor oil fatty acids was then reacted with linseed oil fatty acids and benzoic acid. The linseed fatty acids were incorporated into the structure to ...
ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSION AND SORPTION OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL BY SINGLE-PELLET MOMENT TECHNIQUE
CABBAR, C; DOGU, G; Doğu, Timur; MCCOY, BJ; SMITH, JM (American Chemical Society (ACS), 1994-07-01)
The single-pellet moment technique was shown to be a powerful method for investigating the diffusion and adsorption of volatile hydrocarbons in the soil. The technique was used to evaluate effective diffusivities, adsorption equilibrium, and rate constants of chlorinated hydrocarbons (monochloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane). Results obtained in a dry system showed that adsorption rate constants of all these hydrocarbons on the soil pellet used are of the same ...
Fabrication of microporous ceramics from ceramic powders of quartz-natural zeolite mixtures
San, O; Abali, S; Hoşten, Çetin (Elsevier BV, 2003-01-01)
The possibility of producing ceramic powders suitable for the fabrication of microporous filters was investigated through the thermal treatment of the powder mixtures of a high-purity (99.09% SiO2) quartz and clinoptilolite type of natural zeolite. The quartz and zeolite, mixed in the ratio of 3:1 by weight, was wet ground in a ball mill, the powder was sieved on a 90-mum screen, and the undersize was dried and sintered in the powder form at the temperatures of 1000, 1100 and 1200degreesC for 7 h in an air ...
Citation Formats
Ç. Çuhadar, “Production and characterization of activated carbon from hazelnut shell and hazelnut husk,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2005.