Production and characterization of activated carbon from hazelnut shell and hazelnut husk

Çuhadar, Çiğdem
In this study, the pore structures and surface areas of activated carbons produced from hazelnut shell and hazelnut husk by chemical activation technique using phosphoric acid (H3PO4), at relatively low temperatures (300, 400 and 500oC), were investigated. Raw materials were impregnated with different H3PO4 solutions of 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% by weight. To produce activated carbon, acid impregnated samples were heated; at a heating rate of 20 oC/min to the final carbonization temperature and held at that temperature for 2 hours. The volume and surface areas of mesopores (2-50 nm) and BET surface areas of the samples were determined by N2 gas adsorption technique at -195.6oC. The pore volume and the area of the micropores with diameters less than 2 nm were determined by CO2 adsorption measurements at 0oC by the application of Dubinin Radushkevich equation. N2 (BET) surface areas of the hazelnut shell and hazelnut husk based activated carbons were in the range of 242-596 m2/g and 705-1565 m2/g, respectively. CO2 (D-R) surface areas of the hazelnut shell and hazelnut husk based activated carbons were in the range of 433-576 m2/g and 376-724 m2/g, respectively. The highest BET surface area was obtained as 596 m2/g among hazelnut shell based samples (HS 60.4; shell impregnated with 60 wt.% H3PO4, carbonized at 400 ðC) and as 1565 m2/g among hazelnut husk based samples (HH 40.4; husk impregnated with 40 wt.% H3PO4, carbonized at 400 ðC). Hazelnut shell based activated carbons were mainly microporous while hazelnut husk based ones were mesoporous.


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Citation Formats
Ç. Çuhadar, “Production and characterization of activated carbon from hazelnut shell and hazelnut husk,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2005.