Labor, leisure and freedom in the philosophies of Aristotle, Karl Marx and Herbert Marcuse

Kılınç, Doğan Barış
The aim of this study is to present an examination of the philosophies of Aristotle, Karl Marx and Herbert Marcuse concerning labor and leisure in the context of freedom. These philosophers have paid attention to the concepts labor and leisure; their view of freedom is dependent on the relationship they have established between labor and leisure. To this end, I firstly give a general overview of the concepts labor, leisure and freedom; afterwards, I try to show how these concepts have been considered in the history of thought. I examine the concepts labor and leisure in Aristotle’s political and ethical thought. I discuss the connection between Aristotle’s perfect state and his view of ethics in the context of labor and leisure, and the relation between best way of life and freedom in Aristotle is presented. Next, I analyze Karl Marx’s view of human nature and his theory of estrangement. I investigate the condition of labor and leisure in the capitalist society from Marx’s point of view; and consider Marxian conceptions “the realm of freedom” and “the realm of necessity” is considered in context of labor and leisure. Lastly, I analyze Herbert Marcuse’s critique of the advanced industrial society and the thoughts on “one dimensional man” it creates. I dwelled on the possibilities of technological developments, and the changes they bring about concerning labor and leisure, both as means of servitude and freedom. In the conclusion, I give a brief summary, and consider the similarities and differences among the views of Aristotle, Karl Marx and Herbert Marcuse concerning labor, leisure and freedom.


Irony as a philosophical attitude in socrates
Korkut, Hacer; İnam, Ahmet; Department of Philosophy (2007)
This thesis analyzes the reasons for Socrates' being presented as a paradoxical figure in the early dialogues of Plato. Irony as a fundamental philosophical attitude in Socratic philosophy is discussed with reference to some of the major philosophers of the history of philosophy. The thesis also suggests the possibility of seeing philosophy as an ironic activity and it traces the etymology of the concept of irony in terms of its philosophical importance.
Revisiting immanence and conatus in Spinoza
Yaylım, Berk; İnam, Ahmet; Department of Philosophy (2015)
This thesis focuses on the concept of immanence in Spinoza’s philosophy and its importance in explicating theory of knowledge and conatus. While accounting for immanence, it will seek not only his metaphysics but also a critical discussion of transcendence and emanation. After the metaphysical system behind his philosophy is explained, his defense of necessitarianism will be emphasized. In this study, under the light of these, a coherent interpretation of Spinoza’s solutions, how these relate to his theory ...
The relation of freedom and evil in Kant’s moral philosophy
Aydın Bayram, Selma; Turan, Şeref Halil; Department of Philosophy (2006)
The purpose of this study is to examine concepts of freedom and evil, and to clarify their relation in terms of Kant’s moral philosophy. In this study, I firstly examine Kant’s understanding of freedom and the problems that this understanding leads to. I also discuss how the concept of freedom can be reconciled with the concept of evil expressed in the form of “propensity to evil”. Additionally, I attempt to show the significance of the notion of evil for Kant’s moral theory. Evil is one of the most critici...
Therapeutic philosophy: wittgenstein and heidegger
Temizler, Büke; Turan, Şeref Halil; Department of Philosophy (2020)
Considering comparative studies in philosophy, the relationship between philosophies of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Martin Heidegger has a remarkable place in history. In this thesis, I attempt to discuss their philosophies to reveal their common suggestion to philosophy, which could be understood as a cure to the misleading formulations of philosophical problems. Their philosophical method begins with giving attention to the pre-theoretical attitude of human beings in ordinary life, in evaluating the philosoph...
Foucault, sexuality, and an epistemico-ontological ground for resistance
Karademir, Aret; Bağçe, Samet; Department of Philosophy (2009)
Michel Foucault characterizes power as ubiquitous and productive in the sense that there is no power-free truth, subject, and knowledge. Moreover, he studies the historical conditions of truth and subject to have an existence in a way that he historicizes them rather than delineating truth as corresponding to reality and subject as a self-subsistent and ahistorical substance. In this respect, his anti-essentialist account of power, truth, and subject is criticized on the account that he excludes the possibi...
Citation Formats
D. B. Kılınç, “Labor, leisure and freedom in the philosophies of Aristotle, Karl Marx and Herbert Marcuse,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2006.