Causes and consequences of seasonal variation of phosphoglucomutase (pgm) enzyme polymorphism in honeybees, (apis mellifera l.) of turkey

Güldüren, Zerrin
Phosphoglucomutase (PGM) is one of the central enzymes in energy metabolism at a branch point at the head of the metabolic pathway leading into glycogen metabolism, pentose shunt and the main glycolytic cycle, catalyzing the reversible interconversion of glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate. Whole year, month to month analysis of pattern of allozyme variation at Pgm and Hk loci in Apis mellifera L. from three provinces; Kırklareli, Artvin, and Hatay revealed that there is significant seasonal variation of allozyme frequencies at Pgm locus (P<0.001). The difference in genotype frequencies between summer and winter samples is apparent in Pgm, whereas at Hk locus, which is analyzed as a control there is seasonal variation in genotype frequencies. Biochemical measurements of the enzyme activities and glycogen content of different Pgm genotypes were performed to determine the effect of different Pgm genotypes on the physiological performance of the honeybees and it was observed that both enzyme activity and glycogen amount is higher in heterozygote individuals which are in high frequency during winter months (P<0.0001). Furthermore, PGM enzyme activity and glycogen content was found to be significantly correlated. These findings clearly demonstrate that biochemical differences between different Pgm genotypes have functional correlates that lead to significant variations in glycogen content of the honeybees and may have adaptive consequences.