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The effect of potassium hydroxide on the polymerization of trichlorophenol, pyrrole and thiophene by microwave initiation

Güngör (Ünsal), Müfide Elif
The synthesis of black conducting polymer (CP) and/or crosslinked polymers (CLP) and/or radical ion polymer (RIP) and/or white polymers (WP) and/or orange polymer (OP) were achieved by using KOH with TCP, pyrrole and thiophene via microwave energy in a very short time interval. Polymerizations were carried out by constant microwave energy with different time intervals varying from 1 to 25 min; or at constant time intervals with variation of microwave energy from 90 to 900 watt; or varying the water content from 0, 0.5 to 5 ml at constant time intervals and microwave energy, or at constant time interval, water content, microwave energy with variation of amount of KOH 0.03 mol to 6x10-4 mol. The effects of heating time, microwave energy, water content and amount of KOH on the percent conversion and the polymer synthesis were also investigated.White, orange polymers and radical ion polymers were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), 1H-NMR (Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), 13C-NMR (Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), TGA/ FTIR (Thermal Gravimetric Analysis / Fourier Transform Infrared), DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), ESR (Electron Spin Resonance), GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography), UV-Vis (UV-Visible Spectroscopy) and Light Scattering. Conducting and crosslinked polymers were characterized by FTIR, TGA/ FTIR, DSC, SEM, ESR, XRD (Powder Diffraction X-Ray) and conductivity.